Citrate salts have also been used to treat calcium-containing kidney stones. They have been shown to stabilise stone size and to reduce stone size.
Taking citrate salts after meals reduces the likelihood of adverse effects.
An alternative to citrate tablets is ‘real lemonade’. Drinking 2–3 glasses of real lemonade (30 mL real lemon juice, 190 mL of water and sweetener to taste) daily may also prevent stone formation.
Patients should also be advised to maintain or increase water intake.
Citrate salts have been used in children with radiolucent kidney stones. At three months, the stone-free rate with dissolution therapy nears that of single session lithotripsy (73% and 82% respectively).