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Supporting smoking cessation: A guide for health professionals

Chapter 5

Tobacco harm reduction

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Last revised: 29 Sep 2021

The goal for those who smoke should always be to stop smoking altogether in order to reduce or eliminate the harms from smoking. However, some people are unable or unwilling to give up tobacco or nicotine use completely. For this group of people, a tobacco harm reduction approach has been suggested. Possible approaches to reduce the exposure to toxins from smoking include:

  • reducing the amount of tobacco used
  • using less toxic products (eg pharmaceutical nicotine, potential reduced‐exposure tobacco products [PREPs]) as an alternative to cigarettes.

There is limited available evidence of the health effects that reduced smoking may have on the incidence of tobacco-related diseases.1,2 A reduction in smoking by 50% may slightly reduce the risk of lung cancer in people who were smoking 15 or more cigarettes each day;3 however, there is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke.2 A decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked per day (eg to less than 10 per day) does not reduce the risk of:1,4,5,6

  • fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction
  • hospitalisation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • all-cause mortality.

While long-term health benefits of smoking reduction is limited, those who embark on this path may have an increased likelihood of quitting, even if they did not initially intend to do so. For example, those who use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking reduction are approximately twice as likely to progress to quitting as those who do not.7

Those who are not willing to quit can be advised to partially substitute their cigarette intake with NRT. Gradually, cigarette intake can be reduced and NRT increased. The use of NRT in this way can double the odds of progressing to complete smoking cessation.7,8 Long-term partial replacement with nicotine is not recommended as no clear health benefit has been demonstrated.

Reducing cigarette intake without a nicotine supplement is not recommended and has little proven health benefit.4,5,6 Research has found that when reducing cigarette intake, those who smoke adjust their smoking topography (ie number of puffs, depth of inhalation) to maintain the desired level of nicotine.9


Nicotine vaping products

Products that contain nicotine (in salt or base form) in a solution designed to be inhaled using a vaping device. Includes vape liquids, e-liquids and e-juices that contain nicotine, and the nicotine solution in nicotine e-cigarettes and pods.

Vaping device

Electronic devices used to heat vaping products to release an aerosol that is inhaled. Includes e-cigarettes, e-cigars, e-hookah pens, e-pens, e-pipes and vape pens.

Note: “Heated tobacco products” are not nicotine vaping products

Electronic cigarettes, often referred to as e-cigarettes, are a diverse range of battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine aerosol without tobacco or smoke. E-cigarettes were invented in the 2000s and have since been rapidly changing. The vaping device heats an e-liquid – also known as the nicotine vaping product (NVP) – into an aerosol for inhalation. The nicotine content of e-cigarettes can vary from zero to up to over 50 mg/mL. E-cigarette users are referred to as ‘vapers’ and e-cigarette use as ‘vaping’.10

The use of e-cigarettes is controversial as its long-term safety profile is still largely unknown.11,12,13 Nicotine e-cigarettes have a potential role as a tobacco harm reduction strategy for people who do not wish to give up tobacco or nicotine use completely. Proponents of e-cigarettes point to the situation in Sweden where the prevalence of combustible tobacco use is low (5%), perhaps in part related to the use of oral tobacco products.14 In the United Kingdom, increasing use of e-cigarettes has been associated with a decrease in use of combustible tobacco.15 Population studies in the United Kingdom and United States suggest a higher uptake of nicotine e-cigarettes by those who smoke and are motivated to quit.14,16 However, many contextual factors, including the strength and maturity of tobacco control policies, influence the prevalence of tobacco use;17 therefore, comparisons between countries need to be made with caution.

Concerns about e-cigarettes include:17

  • lack of evidence for long-term safety
  • intentional and accidental poisoning, burns and lung injury
  • continued concurrent use with smoking (ie dual use)
  • potential to promote nicotine use and renormalise smoking among non-smokers, especially young people.

Data on uptake of vaping products among youth is rapidly changing and varies between countries. The US National Youth Tobacco Survey data found a dramatic increase in current e-cigarette use among high school students: 1.5% in 2011 to 20.8% in 2018.18 The Australian National Drug Household Survey conducted in 2019 found that 22.3% of people aged 15-24 years reported ever using e-cigarettes while 4.5% reported current or recent use (up from 2.3% in 2016). 19 An association has been observed in young people between e-cigarette use and future experimentation with smoking.20 There has been particular concern about the role of flavourings in attracting young people to e-cigarettes, leading to an immediate ban on these additives in the US.21 It remains to be seen whether such increases will also occur in other countries that allow access to nicotine-containing e-cigarettes as a consumer product.

The potential role of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy is particularly relevant to people with mental illnesses. In recognition of the disproportionately high smoking prevalence and low quit rates among people living with mental health illnesses, the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists supports the legalisation and regulation of nicotine e-cigarettes and other vaporised nicotine products to facilitate their use as harm reduction tools.22 However, other organisations oppose use of e-cigarettes for this purpose. Adding to the uncertainty is the fact that NVPs are not approved therapeutic products and the constituents of the vapour produced by e-cigarettes has not been rigourously tested and standardised.

In Australia, a precautionary approach23 to the use of e-cigarettes has been taken.

From 1 October 2021 nicotine has been re-scheduled to a Schedule 4 medicine, available by prescription only. Consumers require a prescription for all purchases of NVPs regardless of where they are sourced from. There are currently no Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) approved NVPs in the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG). Nicotine vaping products are unapproved medicines. For information about the evidence and safety on NVPs for the purpose of smoking cessation and considerations in prescribing these products for that purpose see Chapter 2 Electronic cigarettes and nicotine vaping products.

  1. Hackshaw A, Morris JK, Boniface S, Tang JL, Milenković D. Low cigarette consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: Meta-analysis of 141 cohort studies in 55 study reports. BMJ 2018;360:j5855.
  2. Inoue-Choi M, Liao LM, Reyes-Guzman C, Hartge P, Caporaso N, Freedman ND. Association of long-term, low-intensity smoking with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. JAMA Intern Med 2017;177:87–95. 
  3. Godtfredsen NS, Prescott E, Osler M. Effect of smoking reduction on lung cancer risk. JAMA 2005;294:1505–10.
  4. Godtfredsen NS, Osler M, Vestbo J, Andersen I, Prescott E. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction in Denmark 1976–1998: A pooled cohort study. J Epidemiol Community Health 2003;57:412–16.
  5. Godtfredsen NS, Holst C, Prescott E, Vestbo J, Osler M. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality: A 16-year follow-up of 19,732 men and women from The Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:994–1001.
  6. Godtfredsen NS, Vestbo J, Osler M, Prescott E. Risk of hospital admission for COPD following smoking cessation and reduction: A Danish population study. Thorax 2002;57:967–72.
  7. Lindson-Hawley N, Hartmann-Boyce J, Fanshawe TR, Begh R, Farley A, Lancaster T. Interventions to reduce harm from continued tobacco use. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;10:CD005231.
  8. Moore D, Aveyard P, Connock M, Wang D, Fry-Smith A,Barton P. Effectiveness and safety of nicotine replacement therapy assisted reduction to stop smoking: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2009;338:b1024.
  9. Hammond D, Fong G, Cummings M, Hyland A. Smoking topography, brand switching and nicotine delivery: Results from an in vivo study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005:14(6):1370–5.
  10. Hartmann-Boyce J, Begh R, Aveyard P. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation. BMJ 2018;360:j5543.
  11. Evans CM, Dickey BF, Schwartz DA. E-cigarettes: Mucus measurements make marks. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018;197:420–22.
  12. Hartmann-Boyce J, McRobbie H, Bullen C, Begh R, Stead LF, Hajek P. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;9:CD010216.
  13. Byrne S, Brindal E, Williams G, et al. E-cigarettes, smoking and health. A literature review update. NSW: CSIRO, 2018.
  14. Ramstrom L, Borland R, Wikmans T. Patterns of smoking and Snus use in Sweden: Implications for public health. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016;13(11):1110.
  15. McNeill A, Brose LS, Calder R, Bauld L, Robson D. Evidence review of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products 2018. A report commissioned by Public Health England. London: Public Health England, 2018.
  16. Zhu SH, Zhuang YL, Wong S, Cummins SE, Tedeschi GJ. E-cigarette use and associated changes in population smoking cessation: Evidence from US current population surveys. BMJ 2017;358:j3262.
  17. Bhatnagar A, Whitsel LP, Blaha MJ, et al. New and emerging tobacco products and the nicotine endgame: The role of robust regulation and comprehensive tobacco control and prevention. A Presidential Advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2019;139(19):e937–58.
  18. Cullen KA, Ambrose BK, Gentzke AS, Apelberg BJ, Jamal A, King BA. Notes from the field: Use of electronic cigarettes and any tobacco product among middle and high school students–United States, 2011–2018. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:1276–7. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6745a5.
  19. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2020. National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2019. Drug Statistics series no.32 PHE 270. Canberra AIWH.
  20. Stanton CA, Bansal-Travers M, Johnson AL, et al. Longitudinal e-cigarette and cigarette use among US youth in the PATH Study (2013–2015). J Natl Cancer Inst 2019:111(10):djz006.
  21. Hajela, D. New York moves to enact statewide flavoured e-cig ban. AP, 16 September 2019 [Accessed 30 October 2019].
  22. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Position statement 97. E-cigarettes and vaporisers. Melbourne: RANZCP, 2018  [Accessed 23 January 2019].
  23. Australian Government Department of Health. Principles that underpin the current policy and regulatory approach to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in Australia. Canberra: Department of Health, 2018 [Accessed 30 October 2019].
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