Background Over 2000 cases of bladder cancer were diagnosed in Australia in 2005. Bladder cancer
is a relatively common disease with high morbidity if left untreated. Bladder cancer is
categorised as either ‘nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer’ or ‘muscle invasive bladder
cancer’. Treatment varies significantly for each type.
Objective This article provides an update on the presentation of bladder cancer, its risk factors,
investigations and treatment, and discusses the role of chemotherapy as a neoadjuvant
and adjuvant treatment.
Discussion Bladder cancer most commonly presents with microscopic or macroscopic haematuria.
Evaluation is required of all patients with macroscopic haematuria, patients with
persistent microscopic haematuria, and at risk patients with a single episode of
microscopic haematuria. Evaluation consists of imaging, urine cytology and cystoscopy.
Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer patients can undergo tumour resection with adjuvant
intravesical treatments, while muscle invasive bladder cancer patients are optimally
treated with cystectomy and urinary diversion.
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