Australian Family Physician
Australian Family Physician


Volume 40, Issue 4, April 2011

Bladder cancer Current management

Ranjan Arianayagam Mohan Arianayagam Prem Rashid
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Over 2000 cases of bladder cancer were diagnosed in Australia in 2005. Bladder cancer is a relatively common disease with high morbidity if left untreated. Bladder cancer is categorised as either ‘nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer’ or ‘muscle invasive bladder cancer’. Treatment varies significantly for each type.
This article provides an update on the presentation of bladder cancer, its risk factors, investigations and treatment, and discusses the role of chemotherapy as a neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment.
Bladder cancer most commonly presents with microscopic or macroscopic haematuria. Evaluation is required of all patients with macroscopic haematuria, patients with persistent microscopic haematuria, and at risk patients with a single episode of microscopic haematuria. Evaluation consists of imaging, urine cytology and cystoscopy. Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer patients can undergo tumour resection with adjuvant intravesical treatments, while muscle invasive bladder cancer patients are optimally treated with cystectomy and urinary diversion.

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