8.6 Kidney disease
Age 0-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-79 > 80
Approximately 1.7 million Australians aged >18 years have reduced kidney function and/or albumin in the urine,75 but only 10% are aware of this.76 CKD may be a stronger risk factor for future coronary events and all-cause mortality than diabetes.77 Early management of CKD includes CVD risk factor reduction, lifestyle changes and prescription of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).78 Patients should be screened for kidney disease if they are at high risk (B).
- Iseki K, Ikemiya Y, Iseki C, Takishita S. Proteinuria and the risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 2003;63:1468–74.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian health survey: Biomedical results for chronic diseases, 2011–12. Canberra: ABS, 2013.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian health survey: First results 2011–12. Canberra: ABS, 2012.
- Tonelli M, Muntner P, Lloyd A, et al. Risk of coronary events in people with chronic kidney disease compared with those with diabetes: A population-level cohort study. Lancet 2012;380(9844):807–14.
- Kidney Health Australia. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) management in general practice. 3rd edn. South Melbourne, Vic: Kidney Health Australia, 2015.
- Wang Y, Chen X, Song Y, Caballero B, Cheskin LJ. Association between obesity and kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Kidney Int 2008;73(1):19–33
- Johnson D. Evidence-based guide to slowing the progression of early renal insufficiency. Intern Med J 2004;34:50–57.
- Hallan SI, Dahl K, Oien CM, et al. Screening strategies for chronic kidney disease in the general population: Follow-up of cross sectional health survey. BMJ 2006;333(7577):1047.
- Fox C, Larson MG, Leip EP, Culleton B, Wilson PWF. Predictors of new-onset kidney disease in a community-based population. JAMA 2004;291:844–50.
- Crowe E, Halpin D, Stevens P. Early identification and management of chronic kidney disease: Summary of NICE guidance. BMJ 2008;337:a1530.
- Chadban S, Briganti EM, Kerr PG, et al. Prevalence of kidney damage in Australian adults: The AusDiab kidney study. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003;14(7 Suppl 2):S131–38.
- Astor BC, Hallan SI, Miller ER, Yeung E, Coresh J. Glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, and risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the US population. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167(10):1226–34.
- Angelantonio ED, Chowdhury R, Sarwar N, Aspelund T, Danesh J, Gudnason V. Chronic kidney disease and risk of major cardiovascular disease and non-vascular mortality: Prospective population based cohort study. BMJ 2010;341:4986.
- Hoy W, Mathews J, McCredie D, Pugsley D, Hayhurst B. The multidimensional nature of renal disease: Rates and associations of albuminuria in an Australian Aboriginal community. Kidney Int 1998;54:1296–304.
- Methven S, MacGregor MS, Traynor JP, Hair M, St J O’Reilly D, Deighan CJ. Comparison of urinary albumin and urinary total protein as predictors of patient outcomes in CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 2010;57(1):21–28.
- Levey AS, Coresh J, Balk E, Kausz AT, Levin A. National Kidney Foundation practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: Evaluation, classification, and stratification. Ann Intern Med 2003;139(2):137–47.
- Eknoyan G, Hostetter T, Bakris GL, et al. Proteinuria and other markers of chronic kidney disease: A position statement of the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Am J Kidney Dis 2003;42:617–22.
- Bleyer A, Shemanski LR, Burke GL, Hansen KJ. Tobacco, hypertension, and vascular disease: Risk factors for renal functional decline in an older population. Kidney Int 2000;57:2072–79.
- Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Diagnosis and management of chronic kidney disease: A national clinical guideline. Edinburgh: SIGN, 2008.
- National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation and The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. National guide to a preventive health assessment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. 2nd edn. East Melbourne, Vic: RACGP, 2012.
- Kidney Health Australia. National Chronic Kidney Disease Strategy. Melbourne: KHA, 2006.
- Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2009;150(9):604–12.