Age 0-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-79 > 80
GPs should be alert to symptoms of transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) in those aged ≥45 years and they should assess these patients early in order to prioritise those needing urgent investigation and management. People at high risk should be questioned about symptoms of TIA to determine appropriate action. Adults with AF should have their absolute CVD risk assessed and the cause of their AF determined and treated according to cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk (II, B).
For further information about secondary prevention after stroke or TIA refer to the Stroke Foundation
Also refer to Chapter 15. Screening tests of unproven benefit.
- National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance. Guidelines for the management of absolute cardiovascular disease risk. Melbourne: National Stroke Foundation, 2012.
- National Heart Foundation of Australia and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Reducing risk in heart disease: An expert guide to clinical practice for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Melbourne: National Heart Foundation of Australia, 2012.
- National Heart Foundation of Australia. National Heart Foundation position statement on non-valvular atrial fibrillation and stroke prevention. Med J Aust 2001;174:234–348.
- Goldstein LB, Adams R, Alberts MJ, et al. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: A guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council: Cosponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Council; Clinical Cardiology Council; Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism Council; and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation 2006;113(24):e873–923.
- Alberts MJ, Eikelboom JW, Hankey GJ. Antithrombotic therapy for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Lancet Neurol 2012;11(12):1066–81.
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- Floriani M, Giulini SM, Bonardelli S, Portolani N. Value and limites of ‘critical auscultation’ of neck bruits. Angiology 1988;39:967–72.
- National Stroke Foundation. Clinical guidelines for stroke management. Melbourne: NSF, 2010.
- Lane DA, Lip GY. Use of the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc and HAS-BLED scores to aid decision making for thromboprophylaxis in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2012;126(7):860–65.
- Wolf PA, Abbot RD, Kannel WB. Atrial fibrillation as an independent risk facor for stroke: The Framingham study. Stroke 1991;22:983–88.