Ongoing, high-quality education is essential for general practitioners (GPs), enabling them to provide primary healthcare that meets the needs of people living in Australia. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP) plays a leading role in general practice education.
General practice education has multiple interconnected parts. These need to be responsive to changing needs and priorities. This educational framework provides a foundation upon which to develop and revise these interconnected parts.
The framework is a conceptual representation of the RACGP’s approach to general practice education (Figure 1). It brings together the different components of RACGP education, demonstrating their interrelationships with each other. The framework is directed by the RACGP educational imperatives – an example of which is the RACGP strategic vision and plan. These imperatives inform the RACGP educational principles, which in turn inform our educational guiding instruments and educational programs. These educational programs span the learning continuum for GPs.
Community health needs
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander needs
Medical education scholarship
Ethics and regulations
RACGP educational guiding principles
Profile of the general practitioner
Curriculum for Australian General Practice
RACGP education policies and standards
Primary medical degree
Figure 1. RACGP educational framework core components
The RACGP educational framework is designed to be contemporary, dynamic and aspirational. With functioning educational structures already in place, it gives us a planned approach for reviewing and revising these structures to ensure they align with each other and with contemporary imperatives.
The components of RACGP education represented in the framework are:
- internal and external RACGP educational imperatives
- the RACGP strategic vision and plan
- community health needs and expectations, with attention to the social determinants of health in Australia
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander needs, knowledge and expectations
- current medical education scholarship
- ethical and regulatory requirements
- RACGP educational guiding principles
- RACGP guiding instruments
- RACGP Profile of the general practitioner
- RACGP Curriculum for Australian General Practice
- RACGP education policies and standards
- educational programs across the general practice educational journey, including
- primary medical degrees
- prevocational training
- educational programs leading to Fellowship of the RACGP (FRACGP)
- educational programs for developing extended skills and specific interests
- continuing professional development (CPD)
- programs to support return to work
- programs for professional remediation.
A schedule of evaluation and revision is incorporated into the framework to ensure it functions and evolves effectively in a changing environment.
The RACGP educational framework is a public document that:
- declares the values RACGP education holds
- represents the interconnected nature of the components of RACGP education
- is a reference point for learners, educators and institutions with an interest or stake in RACGP education
- assists the development, revision and evaluation of the RACGP educational guiding instruments
- demonstrates the RACGP’s approach to education for regulatory bodies.
Developing this educational framework has involved consultation with multiple stakeholders: GPs in training and Fellows, universities and other education providers, training organisations, GP supervisors and medical educators, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, community representatives and RACGP management.
This document first presents our educational guiding principles and the rationale for each of these. The principles reflect the values on which the RACGP educational framework is founded, and they address the imperatives that RACGP education needs to meet.
Following this, the guiding instruments and their role within the framework are described. These are the educational structures that give direction to our education programs. They include the Profile of the general practitioner, the Curriculum for Australian General Practice, and the RACGP education policies and standards.
Finally, a summary of the development, implementation and evaluation of this educational framework is provided.
Appendices give additional information on each of the three guiding instruments, detailing their current state, a future vision and recommendations for their revision.
A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms and initialisms are also provided.
prioritises holistic, person-centred healthcare
addresses the health needs of all people living in Australia in an equitable way
is founded on ethical and socially responsible practice
promotes innovation in healthcare and general practice
is founded on evidence-based best practice and strives to be a leader in medical education
values the skills of GP supervisors, educators and researchers
promotes professional and personal development and selfcare throughout a GP’s career
enables GPs to meet the particular needs of those living in rural and remote regions
equips GPs to provide healthcare that meets the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples
meets the requirements of regulatory bodies
Basis of the RACGP educational guiding principles
Holistic, person-centred healthcare is necessary for meeting the complex needs of patients in a respectful way. This approach is recognised as a core feature of general practice.1
Holistic or ‘whole-person’ healthcare considers the multiple dimensions of a patient’s life and addresses these in an integrated way. These dimensions include biological, psychological, spiritual, social and environmental domains. Holistic healthcare employs a broad range of treatment modalities centred on the therapeutic value of a supportive and collaborative doctor–patient relationship. Holistic care recognises the doctor’s humanity and their need to be self-aware and attentive to their own health. Holistic care adopts a view that health is more than the absence of disease.1
Person-centred care is healthcare that respects and responds to the preferences, needs and values of the individual patient.
It involves seeking out and understanding what is important to the patient, fostering trust, establishing mutual respect and working together for shared decisions and care planning.2
GPs are the primary means of access to healthcare in Australia3 and provide the basis of an effective healthcare system. GPs address both individual and community health needs.4 The diversity of sociocultural, economic and environmental contexts within Australia means that the healthcare needs of patients and communities vary across different contexts. Access to healthcare is not currently equitable across Australia.3 To address this, RACGP education is attentive to different community needs. It is also responsive to local, state and national government health priorities.5
RACGP education enables GPs and GPs in training to meet these diverse needs and contexts to improve health outcomes and address health inequalities.6–8 This is particularly important for:
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples
- rural and remote communities
- minority and disadvantaged groups including, but not limited to, people who
- are refugees and migrants
- are from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds
- have disabilities
- are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/gender diverse, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ+)
- are economically challenged.
RACGP education equips GPs to be sensitive to the health needs of all people living in Australia and supports GPs in being advocates for individuals and communities.
RACGP education also supports GPs to engage in population health initiatives, including infectious disease screening and containment, disaster response, provision of public health education and public health advice to health authorities and the government.9
GPs and GPs in training are required to conduct themselves ethically, professionally and in a way that is consistent with the expectations of Australian society and the profession of general practice.10 Ethical medical practice is based on four principles:11
- respect for autonomy – the right of individuals to make their own decisions
- beneficence – the duty to act in the best interests of the patient
- non-maleficence – the duty to do no harm
- justice – equity and fair distribution.
Society expects particular professional characteristics and behaviours from GPs. These include trustworthiness, truthfulness, integrity, commitment to competency, commitment to patient safety, appropriate doctor–patient boundaries, confidentiality, compassion, respect for cultural differences, self-awareness and reflective practice.10,11 When healthcare does not go to plan, GPs are expected to acknowledge and learn from errors, create safe spaces for open dialogue about adverse events, and engage in honest, open disclosure.12 Learning how to respond to and learn from errors is an educational priority.13
GPs have a social responsibility to provide the best possible care for patients and the community while considering cost-effective and equitable use of limited public resources. It is paramount that healthcare for those most disadvantaged is resourced.6 Local, state and federal government health priorities inform this imperative.5
Healthcare practices need to constantly change and evolve for quality improvement and to meet the changing expectations and needs of patients, communities and regulatory bodies. This means that evidence-based innovation is important for general practice and the healthcare it provides.14,15
The RACGP supports education that enables GPs and GPs in training to engage in innovative evolution of healthcare and the profession.6
Innovations in digital technology are enabling more effective and equitable healthcare,14,15
particularly for isolated populations. RACGP education helps GPs and GPs in training to confidently adopt innovations in digital healthcare technology and be leaders in developing these innovations.
RACGP education is theoretically sound, based on current scholarship in medical education.16,17 Two important areas of educational theorising are adult learning and work-based learning. Adult learning theory foregrounds the learner, with a focus on self-directed, experiential and reflective learning.18–20 Work-based learning theories foreground the workplace as a learning environment, focusing on work activity, the interface between the learner and the work community, and the identity development of the learner.21–23
RACGP education uses competency- and outcomes-based education, with robust assessment methodologies that are fit for purpose.24–28 Assessment is both for learning and for privileging (refer to glossary). In its use for privileging it is clear, transparent and equitable.29
RACGP education recognises its international context. It contributes to the international advancement of general practice education, keeps abreast of advances beyond Australia, and supports research literacy and engagement in research. The RACGP directs a program of research to address educational problems and to inform the development of educational practice. Technological innovation is an important area of education research. Through evaluation, research and innovation, the college provides leadership in general practice education development in Australia and internationally.
Sustainable delivery of high-quality education and healthcare depends on well-trained and supported GP supervisors, medical educators and researchers.30–32
GPs with extended skills in supervision, medical education and research are crucial for ensuring a sustainable and skilled GP workforce.31 RACGP education supports development and use of educational and research skills. It also supports a career pathway for academic GPs.6
GPs require broad professional knowledge, skills and attributes.6 All GPs require core skills in the areas of:
- communication and the patient–doctor relationship
- applied professional knowledge and skills
- population and public health
- organisation and leadership skills
- academic skills, including education and research
- working effectively with other professionals
- self-reflection and quality improvement.
The community and the profession also require GPs with extended skills in these areas and skills in specialist areas such as military medicine, business management, healthcare policy, and health service planning and development.6 GPs need to maintain, improve and expand their expertise over the course of their career depending on the context of their work and on their interest. They need to be responsive to changing clinical, technological and community contexts.6,10 RACGP education helps GPs maintain and develop, throughout their career, expertise in core areas of practice, as well as expertise in specialised fields.
General practice presents a challenging workplace environment where GPs can experience stress and isolation.33 RACGP education helps GPs and GPs in training adopt self-care habits, build resilience, attend to their physical and mental wellbeing through a healthy work–life balance, and develop effective and sustainable work environments and practices.34
The RACGP recognises the difficulty those living in rural and remote Australia can have in accessing healthcare. The GPs and GPs in training who work in rural and remote Australia also require specific resourcing to meet their educational needs. The RACGP prioritises education that helps meet the needs of patients living in rural and remote Australia, as well as provision of the educational resources needed by GPs and GPs in training who work in these areas.8
There are particular challenges in meeting the healthcare needs of Australia’s rural and remote communities. These communities depend on GPs capable of meeting those challenges. This may require GPs to have skills extending into areas normally delegated to other specialties in metropolitan areas.35
Currently, there is a maldistribution of GPs leading to a workforce shortage in rural and remote communities.35 Addressing this is a priority for the RACGP and RACGP education.8 RACGP education aims to provide the additional training and support needed to attract and enable GPs and GPs in training to learn and work effectively in rural and remote communities.
The RACGP is committed to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and the ‘Close the Gap’ initiative.36 It prioritises working collaboratively and effectively with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to support the health of their peoples and communities in a way that is culturally safe and optimises their health outcomes.37
RACGP education collaborates with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities in both educational programs and in identifying and prioritising health interventions for specific communities and contexts. GP cultural competency is essential, and cultural educators are a necessary and integral part of GP cultural competency training.30 The RACGP recognises that healthcare and education must draw on the strength and resilience present in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities today, and needs to be developed in partnership with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities.37
The RACGP will therefore partner with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, health workers, cultural educators and cultural mentors to design, deliver, assess and evaluate education related to holistic, person-centred healthcare for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Ongoing cultural competency education forms a key part of this, and all individuals and organisations are required to demonstrate that they can and will work in a way that is culturally safe, as defined by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are also supported and enabled to train as GPs to address workforce inequity and increase the number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander GPs. The needs of GPs and GPs in training who identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander are a priority of RACGP education, and appropriate support and resources are provided to these individuals.
The RACGP considers the education of GPs a social responsibility. Part of meeting this responsibility is addressing the priorities and requirements of local, state and federal government regulatory bodies. Regulatory requirements inform RACGP education and help ensure it provides high-quality training that is responsive to community healthcare needs. Of particular consideration are the regulatory requirements prescribed by the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law Act 2009 (Qld) through the Medical Board of Australia (MBA).38 The RACGP must meet these requirements to maintain accreditation for its Fellowship pathways, educational programs and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Program. It is also necessary for the continued statutory recognition of
GPs as medical specialists and the assessment of international medical graduates for general practice.39,40
RACGP education supports GPs and GPs in training to understand and meet their responsibilities in complying with regulatory requirements.
- Thomas H, Mitchell G, Rich J, et al. Definition of whole person care in general practice in the English language literature: A systematic review. BMJ Open 2018;8:e023758. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023758.
- Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. Person-centred care. ACSQHC, 2019 [Accessed 3 August 2020].
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. Patient experiences in Australia: Summary of findings, 2018–19. Canberra: ABS, 2019 [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Starfield B, Shi L, Macinko J. Contribution of primary care to health systems and health. Milbank Q 2005;83(3):457–502. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2005.00409.x. [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Parliament of Australia. The National Health Priority Areas initiative. Current Issues Brief 18 1999–2000. Canberra: Parliament of Australia, 2000 [Accessed 3 August 2020].
- The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. What is general practice? East Melbourne, Vic: RACGP, 2020 [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- World Health Organization. Closing the gap in a generation: Healthy equity through action on the social determinants of health: Final report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva: WHO, 2008 [Accessed 21 July 2020].
- The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. RACGP strategic plan 2020–22. East Melbourne, Vic: RACGP, 2020 [Accessed 12 January 2021].
- Leeder S, Corbett S, Usherwood T. General practice registrar education beyond the practice: The public health role of general practitioners. Aust Fam Physician 2016;45(5):266–69 [Accessed 19 November 2020].
- Medical Board of Australia. Good medical practice: A code of conduct for doctors in Australia. Melbourne: MBA, 2014 [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Breen KJ, Cordner SM, Thomson CJ, Plueckhahsin, V. Good medical practice: Professionalism, ethics and law. New York. Cambridge University Press, 2010. [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. Australian Open Disclosure Framework – Better communication, a better way to care. Sydney: ACSQHC, 2013 [Accessed 19 November 2020].
- Sturman NJ, Saiepour N. Ethics and professionalism in general practice placements: What should students learn? Aust Fam Physician 2014;43(7):468–72 [Accessed 19 November 2020].
- World Health Organization. 71st World Health Assembly (WHA) Resolution WHA71.7 on Digital Health. Geneva: WHO, 2018 [Accessed 19 November 2020].
- The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. Views and attitudes towards technological innovation in general practice: Survey report 2017. East Melbourne, Vic: RACGP, 2018 [Accessed 19 November 2019].
- Rees C, Francis B, Pollard A. The state of medical education research: What can we learn from the outcomes of the UK Research Excellence Framework? Medical Education 2015;49(5):446–48. [Accessed 19 November 2019].
- Brown J, Bearman M, Kirby C, Molloy E, Colville D, Nestel D. Theory, a lost character? As presented in general practice education research papers. Medical Education 2019;53(5):443–57. [Accessed 19 November 2019].
- Knowles MS, Holton EF III, Swanson RA. The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. 7th edn. London: Routledge, 2012. [Accessed 19 November 2019].
- Schön DA. The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books, 1983. [Accessed 19 November 2019].
- Kolb DA. Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. 2nd edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson FT Press, 2015. [Accessed 19 November 2019].
- Wenger E. Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. [Accessed 19 November 2019].
- Billett S. Toward a workplace pedagogy: Guidance, participation, and engagement. Adult Education Quarterly 2002;53(1):27–43. [Accessed 19 November 2019].
- Engeström Y, Miettinen R, Punamäki RL. Perspectives on activity theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. [Accessed 19 November 2019].
- Carraccio C, Englander R, Van Melle E, et al. Advancing competency-based medical education: A charter for clinician–educators. Acad Med 2016;91(5):645–49. [Accessed 19 November 2019].
- Australian Medical Council. Competence-based medical education. Consultation paper. Kingston, ACT: AMC, 2010 [Accessed 21 July 2020].
- Pangaro L, Ten Cate O. Frameworks for learner assessment in medicine: AMEE Guide No. 78, Medical Teacher 2013;35(6):e1197–1210 direct=true&AuthType=sso&db=edsbl&AN=RN333042111&site=eds-live&scope=site [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Torre DM, Schuwirth LWT, Van der Vleuten CPM. Theoretical considerations on programmatic assessment. Med Teach 2020;42(2):213–220. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2019.1672863. [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Lockyer J, Carraccio C, Chan MK, et al, on behalf of the ICBME collaborators. Core principles of assessment in competency-based medical education. Med Teach 2017;39(6):609–16. doi:10.1080/0142159X.2017.1315082. [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Norcini J, Burch V. Workplace-based assessment as an educational tool. AMEE Guide No. 31. Med Teach 2007;29(9):855–58. [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Brown J, Kirby C, Wearne S, Snadden D. Remodelling general practice training: Tension and innovation. Aust J Gen Pract 2019;48(11):773–78 [Accessed 19 November 2020].
- Bartle E, Thistlewaite E. Becoming a medical educator: Motivation, socialisation and navigation. BMC Med Ed 2014;14, Article 110. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-14-110. [Accessed 19 November 2020].
- Windsor J, Searle J, Hanney A, et al. Building a sustainable clinical academic workforce to meet the future healthcare needs of Australian and New Zealand: Report from the first summit meeting. Intern Med J 2015;45(9):965–71. doi: 10.1111/imj.12854. [Accessed 19 November 2020].
- beyondblue. National Mental Health Survey of Doctors and Medical Students. Hawthorn, Vic: beyondblue, 2013 [Accessed 19 November 2020].
- The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. Self-care and mental health resources for general practitioners. East Melbourne, Vic: RACGP, 2018 [Accessed 19 November 2020].
- National Rural Health Commissioner. National Rural Generalist Taskforce: Advice to the National Rural Health Commissioner on the development of the National Rural Generalist Pathway. Canberra: National Rural Generalist Taskforce, 2018 [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Coalition of Peaks. National Agreement on Closing the Gap, 2020. Canberra: Coalition of Peaks, 2020 [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: Position statement. East Melbourne, Vic: RACGP, 2017 [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Queensland Government. Health Practitioner Regulation National Law Act 2009 [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Medical Board of Australia. Registration standard: Continuing professional development. Melbourne: MBA, 2016 [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Australian Medical Council. Standards for assessment and accreditation of specialist medical programs and professional development programs by the Australian Medical Council 2015. Kingston, ACT: AMC, 2015 [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Andresen L. A useable, trans-disciplinary conception of scholarship. Higher education research and development 2000;19(2):137–53. [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Swanwick T, Forrest KAT, O’Brien BC. Understanding medical education: Evidence, theory, and practice. 3rd edn. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2018. [Accessed 20 July 2020].
- Australian Qualifications Framework Council. Australian qualifications framework. 2nd edn. Canberra: AQFC Council, 2013 [Accessed 3 August 2020].
- Confederation of Postgraduate Medical Education Councils. Australian curriculum framework for junior doctors. Version 3.1. Melbourne: CPMEC, 2012 [Accessed 3 August 2020].
- Englander R, Cameron T, Ballard AJ, Dodge J, Bull J, Aschenbrener CA. Toward a common taxonomy of competency domains for the health professions and competencies for physicians. Acad Med 2013;88(8):1088–94. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31829a3b2b. [Accessed 3 August 2020].
- Weggemans MM, van Dijk B, van Dooijeweert B, Veenendaal AG, Ten Cate O. The postgraduate medical education pathway: An international comparison. GMS J Med Educ 2017;34(5):Doc63. [Accessed 3 August 2020].
- Holmboe ES, Sherbino J, Englander R, Snell L, Frank JR, on behalf of the ICBME collaborators. A call to action: The controversy of and rationale for competency-based medical education. Med Teach 10.1080/0142159X.2017.1315067.
- Ten Cate O. Competency-based postgraduate medical education: Past, present and future. GMS J Med Educ 2017;34(5):Doc69. doi: 10.3205/zma001146.
- Grant J. Understanding medical education: Evidence, theory and practice. 2nd edn. London: John Wiley & Sons, 2014.
- Ten Cate O, Carraccio C. Envisioning a true continuum of competency-based medical education, training, and practice. Acad Med 2019;94(9):1283–88. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002687.
- Swanwick T, Forrest K, O’Brien BC, editors. Understanding medical education: Evidence, theory and practice. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell, 2011.
- Eraut M. Informal learning in the workplace. Stud Contin Educ 2004;26(2):247–73.
- Billett S. Authenticity and a culture of practice within modes of skill development. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Vocational Education Research 1993;2(1):1–29.
- Hunter, K, Thomson, B. A scoping review of social determinants of health curricula in post-graduate medical education. Can Med Educ J 2019;10(3):e61–71 [Accessed 20 November 2020].
- McDonald M, Lavelle C, Wen M, Sherbino J, Hulme J. The state of health advocacy training in postgraduate medical education: A scoping review. Med Educ 2019;53(12):1209–20. doi: 10.1111/medu.13929. [Accessed 20 November 2020].
- de la Croix A, Veen M. The reflective zombie: Problematizing the conceptual framework of reflection in medical education. Perspect Med Educ 2018;7(6):394–400. doi:10.1007/s40037-018-0479-9. [Accessed 20 November 2020].
- Schei E, Fuks A, Boudreau JD. Reflection in medical education: Intellectual humility, discovery, and know-how. Med Health Care Philos 2019;22(2):167–78. doi: 10.1007/s11019-018-9878-2. [Accessed 20 November 2020].
- Sales B, Macdonald A, Scallan S, Crane S. How can educators support general practice (GP) trainees to develop resilience to prevent burnout? Educ Prim Care 2016;27(6):487–93. doi:10.1080/14739879.2016.1217170. [Accessed 20 November 2020].
- Sultan N, Torti J, Haddara W, Inayat A, Inayat H, Lingard L. Leadership development in postgraduate medical education: A systematic review of the literature. Acad Med 2109;94(3):440–49. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000002503. [Accessed 20 November 2020].
- Sadowski B, Cantrell S, Barelski A, O›Malley PG, Hartzell JD. Leadership training in graduate medical education: A systematic review. J Grad Med Educ 2018;10(2):134–48. doi: 10.4300/JGME-D-17-00194.1. [Accessed 20 November 2020].
- Manski-Nankervis JE, Sturgiss EA, Liaw ST, Spurling GK, Mazza D. General practice research: An investment to improve the health of all Australians. Med J Aust 2020;212(9):398–400.e1. doi: 10.5694/mja2.50589. [Accessed 20 November 2020].
- Mesko B, Győrffy Z, Kollár J. Digital literacy in the medical curriculum: A course with social media tools and gamification. JMIR Med Educ 2015;1(2):e6. doi: 10.2196/mededu.4411. [Accessed 20 November 2020].
- Sturgiss E, Haesler E, Anderson K. General practice trainees face practice ownership with fear. Aust Health Rev 2016;40(6):661–66. doi: 10.1071/AH15153. [Accessed 20 November 2020].
- Tekian A, Hodges BD, Roberts TE, Schuwirth L, Norcini J. Assessing competencies using milestones along the way. Med Teach 2015;37(4):399–402. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.993954. [Accessed 20 November 2020].
- Reed S, Shell R, Kassis K, et al. Applying adult learning practices in medical education. Curr Probl Paediatr Adolesc Health Care 2014:44(6);170–81. doi: 10.1016/j.cppeds.2014.01.008. [Accessed 20 November 2020].
- World Organization of National Colleges, Academies and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians (WONCA). Bangkok: WONCA, 2020. Available at www.globalfamilydoctor.com [Accessed 20 November 2020]. [Accessed 20 November 2020].
- United Nations Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Prototype of a national curriculum. Paris: UNESCO, 2017 [Accessed 2 December 2020].
- Schneiderhan J, Guetterman TC, Dobson M, 2019, Curriculum development: A how to primer. Fam Med Community Health 7(2):e000046. doi: 10.1136/fmch-2018-000046. [Accessed 2 December 2020].