Suicide prevention and first aid


A resource for GPs

Introduction

☰ Table of contents


Early intervention for mental health issues is important in maximising the wellbeing of patients.6 On average, GPs see more than 80% of the population each year.5 Therefore, the primary care setting is the ideal place for mental health issues to be detected and responded to, the risk to be assessed, and for people to seek help as early as possible to prevent mental health issues and disorders leading to suicide.

It is important that GPs have the knowledge and skills to recognise when a patient might be experiencing mental health issues and to investigate whether they might be at risk of suicide. Undertaking regular mental health education and training is vital to ensuring your skills and knowledge are up to date.

Access the GPMHSC website for accredited education and training.

In the next section you will find useful information and further reading about the specific risk factors for suicide, one of which is mental disorders. Also included are some specific warning signs that might indicate someone is thinking about suicide. 

  1. Mental Health First Aid Australia. What we do at Mental Health First Aid. Melbourne: MHFA, 2015.  [Accessed 4 March 2016].
  2. Ferrari AJ, Norman RE, Freedman G, et al. The burden attributable to mental and substance use disorders as risk factors for suicide: Findings from the global burden of disease study 2010. PLoS One 2014;9(4):e91936.
  3. Hawton K, van Heeringen K. Suicide. Lancet 2009;373(9672):1372–81.
  4. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Causes of death, Australia, 2014. Cat. no. 3303.0. Canberra: ABS, 2016.  [Accessed 1 February 2016].
  5. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian social trends, March, 2011. Cat. no. 4102.0. Canberra: ABS, 2011.  [Accessed 13 January 2016].
  6. Carey M, Jones K, Meadows G, et al. Accuracy of general practitioner unassisted detection of depression. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2014;48(6):571–78.
  7. beyondblue. Common warning signs. Hawthorn West, Vic: beyondblue, 2016.  [Accessed 14 December 2015].
  8. Mitchell AJ, Rao S, Vaze A. International comparison of clinicians’ ability to identify depression in primary care: Meta-analysis and meta-regression of predictors. Br J Gen Pract 2011;61(583):e72–80. doi:10.3399/bjgp11X556227.
  9. Lampe L, Fritz K, Boyce P, et al. Psychiatrists and GPs: Diagnostic decision making, personality profiles and attitudes toward depression and anxiety. Australas Psychiatry 2013;21(3):231–37.
  10. Wilhelm KA, Finch AW, Davenport TA, Hickie IB. What can alert the general practitioner to people whose common mental health problems are unrecognised? Med J Aust 2008;188(12 Suppl):S114–18.
  11. Kyrios M, Mouding R, Nedeljkovic M. Anxiety disorders – Assessment and management in general practice. Aust Fam Physician 2011;40(6):370–74.
  12. Nepon J, Belik SL, Bolton J, Sareen J. The relationship between anxiety disorders and suicide attempts: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Depress Anxiety 2010;27(9):791–98.
  13. beyondblue. What causes anxiety? Hawthorn West, Vic: beyondblue, 2016.  [Accessed 16 February 2016].
  14. Stensland MD, Zhu B, Ascher-Svanum H, Ball DE. Costs associated with attempted suicide among individuals with bipolar disorder. J Ment Health Policy Econ 2010;13(2):87–92.
  15. Cerimele JM, Chwastiak LA, Chan YF, Harrison DA, Unutzer J. The presentation, recognition and management of bipolar depression in primary care. J Gen Intern Med 2013;28(12):1648–56.
  16. Black Dog Institute. Bipolar disorder: Symptoms. Randwick, NSW: Black Dog Institute, 2012. [Accessed 4 February 2016].
  17. Benazzi F. Bipolar disorder – Focus on bipolar II disorder and mixed depression. Lancet 2007;369(9565):935–45.
  18. Almeida OP, Pirkis J, Kerse N, et al. A randomized trial to reduce the prevalence of depression and self-harm behavior in older primary care patients. Ann Fam Med 2012;10(4):347–56.
  19. Women’s Web. Analogies to help one understand depression and other mental health conditions. Women’s Web, 2014.  [Accessed 3 March 2016].
  20. Parker J. Recovery in mental health. S Afr Med J 2014;104(1):77.
  21. Lloyd C, Waghorn G, Williams PL. Conceptualising recovery in mental health rehabilitation. Br J Occup Ther 2008;71(8):321–28.
  22. Department of Health. Principles of recovery oriented mental health practice. Canberra: DoH, 2010. [Accessed 3 March 2016].
  23. Sivasankaran B. Mental health risk assessment: A guide for GPs. Aust Fam Physician 2011;40(6):366–69.  [Accessed 30 May 2016].
  24. Hawgood J, De Leo D. Screening tool for assessing risk of suicide (STARS). Nathan, Qld: Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention, Griffith University, 2015. [Accessed 3 March 2016].
  25. Melvin GA, Gresham D, Beaton S. Safety first – not last! Suicide Safety Planning Intervention (SPI). InPsych 2016; 38(1):14–15. 
    [Accessed 30 May 16].
  26. Zantinge EM, Verhaak PF, de Bakker DH, van der Meer K, Bensing JM. Does burnout among doctors affect their involvement in patients’ mental health problems? A study of videotaped consultations. BMC Fam Pract 2009;10:60.
  27. Wade D, Howard A, Fletcher S, Cooper J, Forbes D. Early response to psychological trauma – What GPs can do. Aust Fam Physician 2013;42(9):610–14.
  28. Brondt A, Sokolowski I, Olesen F, Vedsted P. Continuing medical education and burnout among Danish GPs. Br J Gen Pract 2008;58(546):15–19.

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