Quantitative research methods articles


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Habre C, Tramèr MR, Pöpping DM, Elia N. Ability of a meta-analysis to prevent redundant research: systematic review of studies on pain from propofol injection. BMJ. 2014 Aug 26;348:g5219. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g5219. Review. PubMed PMID: 25161280; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4145062.

Chaimani A. Accounting for baseline differences in meta-analysis. Evid Based Ment Health. 2015 Feb;18(1):23-6. doi: 10.1136/eb-2014-102035. Epub 2014 Dec 30. PubMed PMID: 25550484.

Mavridis D, Chaimani A, Efthimiou O, Leucht S, Salanti G. Addressing missing outcome data in meta-analysis. Evid Based Ment Health. 2014 Aug;17(3):85-9. doi: 10.1136/eb-2014-101900. Epub 2014 Jul 9. PubMed PMID: 25009175.

Bafeta A, Trinquart L, Seror R, Ravaud P. Analysis of the systematic reviews process in reports of network meta-analyses: methodological systematic review. BMJ. 2013 Jul 1;347:f3675. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f3675. Review. PubMed PMID: 23818558; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3697418.

Dechartres A, Altman DG, Trinquart L, Boutron I, Ravaud P. Association between analytic strategy and estimates of treatment outcomes in meta-analyses. JAMA. 2014 Aug 13;312(6):623-30. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.8166. PubMed PMID: 25117131.

Willis BH, Quigley M. The assessment of the quality of reporting of meta-analyses in diagnostic research: a systematic review.BMC Med Res Methodol. 2011 Dec 9;11:163. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-11-163. Review. PubMed PMID: 22151233; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3258221.

Carter BR, Hood K. Balance algorithm for cluster randomized trials. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2008 Oct 9;8:65. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-8-65. PubMed PMID: 18844993; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2588445.

Keech AC, Wonders SM, Cook DI, Gebski VJ. Balancing the outcomes: reporting adverse events. Med J Aust. 2004 Aug 16;181(4):215-8. PubMed PMID: 15310259.

Derrett S, Colhoun S. Being a quantitative interviewer: qualitatively exploring interviewers' experiences in a longitudinal cohort study. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2011 Dec 13;11:165. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-11-165. PubMed PMID: 22165989; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3266203.

Shepperd S, Lewin S, Straus S, Clarke M, Eccles MP, Fitzpatrick R, Wong G, Sheikh A. Can we systematically review studies that evaluate complex interventions? PLoS Med. 2009 Aug;6(8):e1000086. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000086. Epub 2009 Aug 11. PubMed PMID: 19668360; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2717209.

Corrigan N, Bankart MJ, Gray LJ, Smith KL. Changing cluster composition in cluster randomised controlled trials: design and analysis considerations. Trials. 2014 May 24;15:184. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-15-184. PubMed PMID: 24884591; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4039551.

Burgess S, White IR, Resche-Rigon M, Wood AM. Combining multiple imputation and meta-analysis with individual participant data. Stat Med. 2013 Nov 20;32(26):4499-514. doi: 10.1002/sim.5844. Epub 2013 May 24. PubMed PMID: 23703895; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3963448.

Altman DG. Confidence intervals for the number needed to treat. BMJ. 1998 Nov 7;317(7168):1309-12. Review. PubMed PMID: 9804726; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1114210.

Altman D, Bland JM. Confidence intervals illuminate absence of evidence. BMJ. 2004 Apr 24;328(7446):1016-7. PubMed PMID: 15105337; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC404543.

Sun X, Briel M, Busse JW, You JJ, Akl EA, Mejza F, Bala MM, Bassler D, Mertz D, Diaz-Granados N, Vandvik PO, Malaga G, Srinathan SK, Dahm P, Johnston BC, Alonso-Coello P, Hassouneh B, Walter SD, Heels-Ansdell D, Bhatnagar N, Altman DG, Guyatt GH. Credibility of claims of subgroup effects in randomised controlled trials: systematic review. BMJ. 2012 Mar 15;344:e1553. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e1553. Review. PubMed PMID: 22422832.

Nikolakopoulou A, Mavridis D, Salanti G. Demystifying fixed and random effects meta-analysis. Evid Based Ment Health. 2014 May;17(2):53-7. doi: 10.1136/eb-2014-101795. Epub 2014 Apr 1. Erratum in: Evid Based Ment Health. 2014 Aug;17(3):89. PubMed PMID: 24692250.

Jackson D, Barrett JK, Rice S, White IR, Higgins JP. A design-by-treatment interaction model for network meta-analysis with random inconsistency effects. Stat Med. 2014 Sep 20;33(21):3639-54. doi: 10.1002/sim.6188. Epub 2014 Apr 29. PubMed PMID: 24777711; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4285290.

Clarke M, Halsey J. Dicing with chance, life and death in systematic reviews and meta-analyses: D.I.C.E. 3, a simulation study. J R Soc Med. 2014 Mar;107(3):116-9. doi: 10.1177/0141076813514574. Epub 2014 Feb 13. PubMed PMID: 24526461; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3938124.

Bird L, Arthur A, Cox K. "Did the trial kill the intervention?" experiences from the development, implementation and evaluation of a complex intervention. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2011 Mar 1;11:24. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-11-24. PubMed PMID: 21362159; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3056847.

Chan AW, Hróbjartsson A, Jørgensen KJ, Gøtzsche PC, Altman DG. Discrepancies in sample size calculations and data analyses reported in randomised trials: comparison of publications with protocols. BMJ. 2008 Dec 4;337:a2299. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2299. PubMed PMID: 19056791; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2600604.

Hamm MP, Scott SD, Klassen TP, Moher D, Hartling L. Do health care institutions value research? A mixed methods study of barriers and facilitators to methodological rigor in pediatric randomized trials. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2012 Oct 18;12:158. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-158. PubMed PMID: 23078589; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3503580.

Turner L, Shamseer L, Altman DG, Schulz KF, Moher D. Does use of the CONSORT Statement impact the completeness of reporting of randomised controlled trials published in medical journals? A Cochrane review. Syst Rev. 2012 Nov 29;1:60. doi: 10.1186/2046-4053-1-60. Review. PubMed PMID: 23194585; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3564748.

Nüesch E, Trelle S, Reichenbach S, Rutjes AW, Bürgi E, Scherer M, Altman DG, Jüni P. The effects of excluding patients from the analysis in randomised controlled trials: meta-epidemiological study. BMJ. 2009 Sep 7;339:b3244. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b3244. Review. PubMed PMID: 19736281; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2739282.

Bowden J, Brannath W, Glimm E. Empirical Bayes estimation of the selected treatment mean for two-stage drop-the-loser trials: a meta-analytic approach. Stat Med. 2014 Feb 10;33(3):388-400. doi: 10.1002/sim.5920. Epub 2013 Jul 22. PubMed PMID: 23873666; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4282323.

Willis BH, Hyde CJ. Estimating a test's accuracy using tailored meta-analysis-How setting-specific data may aid study selection. J Clin Epidemiol. 2014 May;67(5):538-46. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.10.016. Epub 2014 Jan 18. PubMed PMID: 24447592.

Salanti G, Del Giovane C, Chaimani A, Caldwell DM, Higgins JP. Evaluating the quality of evidence from a network meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 3;9(7):e99682. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099682. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24992266; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4084629.

Cakir B, Gebski VJ, Keech AC. Flow of participants in randomised studies. Med J Aust. 2003 Apr 7;178(7):347-9. PubMed PMID: 12670283.

Smyth RM, Kirkham JJ, Jacoby A, Altman DG, Gamble C, Williamson PR. Frequency and reasons for outcome reporting bias in clinical trials: interviews with trialists. BMJ. 2011 Jan 6;342:c7153. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c7153. PubMed PMID: 21212122; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3016816.

Seale JP, Gebski VJ, Keech AC. Generalising the results of trials to clinical practice. Med J Aust. 2004 Nov 15;181(10):558-60. PubMed PMID: 15540970.

Chaimani A, Higgins JP, Mavridis D, Spyridonos P, Salanti G. Graphical tools for network meta-analysis in STATA. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 3;8(10):e76654. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076654. eCollection 2013. PubMed PMID: 24098547; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3789683.

Chaimani A, Mavridis D, Salanti G. A hands-on practical tutorial on performing meta-analysis with Stata. Evid Based Ment Health. 2014 Nov;17(4):111-6. doi: 10.1136/eb-2014-101967. Epub 2014 Oct 6. PubMed PMID: 25288685.

Kicinski M. How does under-reporting of negative and inconclusive results affect the false-positive rate in meta-analysis? A simulation study. BMJ Open. 2014 Aug 28;4(8):e004831. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004831. PubMed PMID: 25168036; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4156818.

Tam WW, Tang JL, Di MY, Tsoi KK. How often does an individual trial agree with its corresponding meta-analysis? A meta-epidemiologic study. PLoS One. 2014 Dec 4;9(12):e113994. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113994. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25474198; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4256383.

Selby P, Brosky G, Oh PI, Raymond V, Ranger S. How pragmatic or explanatory is the randomized, controlled trial? The application and enhancement of the PRECIS tool to the evaluation of a smoking cessation trial. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2012 Jul 23;12:101. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-101. PubMed PMID: 22824225; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3477062.

Nikolakopoulou A, Mavridis D, Salanti G. How to interpret meta-analysis models: fixed effect and random effects meta-analyses. Evid Based Ment Health. 2014 May;17(2):64. doi: 10.1136/eb-2014-101794. PubMed PMID: 24778439.

Altman DG, Bland JM. How to randomise. BMJ. 1999 Sep 11;319(7211):703-4. Review. PubMed PMID: 10480833; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1116549.

Chan AW, Altman DG. Identifying outcome reporting bias in randomised trials on PubMed: review of publications and survey of authors. BMJ. 2005 Apr 2;330(7494):753. Epub 2005 Jan 28. PubMed PMID: 15681569; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC555875.

Jansen JP, Naci H. Is network meta-analysis as valid as standard pairwise meta-analysis? It all depends on the distribution of effect modifiers. BMC Med. 2013 Jul 4;11:159. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-159. Review. PubMed PMID: 23826681; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3707819.

Kirkham JJ, Dwan KM, Altman DG, Gamble C, Dodd S, Smyth R, Williamson PR. The impact of outcome reporting bias in randomised controlled trials on a cohort of systematic reviews. BMJ. 2010 Feb 15;340:c365. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c365. PubMed PMID: 20156912.

Taljaard M, McRae AD, Weijer C, Bennett C, Dixon S, Taleban J, Skea Z, Eccles MP, Brehaut JC, Donner A, Saginur R, Boruch RF, Grimshaw JM. Inadequate reporting of research ethics review and informed consent in cluster randomised trials:review of random sample of published trials. BMJ. 2011 May 11;342:d2496. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d2496. Review. PubMed PMID: 21562003; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3092521.

Ter Riet G, Bachmann LM, Kessels AG, Khan KS. Individual patient data meta-analysis of diagnostic studies: opportunities and challenges. Evid Based Med. 2013 Oct;18(5):165-9. doi: 10.1136/eb-2012-101145. Epub 2013 May 23. PubMed PMID: 23704701.

Keech AC, Pike R, Granger RE, Gebski VJ. Interpreting the results of a clinical trial. Med J Aust. 2007 Mar 19;186(6):318-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 17371216.

Umscheid CA, Margolis DJ, Grossman CE. Key concepts of clinical trials: a narrative review. Postgrad Med. 2011 Sep;123(5):194-204. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2011.09.2475. Review. PubMed PMID: 21904102; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3272827.

O'Connell RL, Gebski VJ, Keech AC. Making sense of trial results: outcomes and estimation. Med J Aust. 2004 Feb 2;180(3):128-30. PubMed PMID: 14748677.

25: Golder S, Loke YK, Bland M. Meta-analyses of adverse effects data derived from randomised controlled trials as compared to observational studies: methodological overview. PLoS Med. 2011 May;8(5):e1001026. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001026. Epub 2011 May 3. Review. PubMed PMID: 21559325; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3086872.

Nordmann AJ, Kasenda B, Briel M. Meta-analyses: what they can and cannot do. Swiss Med Wkly. 2012 Mar 9;142:w13518. doi: 10.4414/smw.2012.13518. Review. PubMed PMID: 22407741.

Barendregt JJ, Doi SA, Lee YY, Norman RE, Vos T. Meta-analysis of prevalence. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 Nov 1;67(11):974-8. doi: 10.1136/jech-2013-203104. Epub 2013 Aug 20. PubMed PMID: 23963506.

Burke DL, Billingham LJ, Girling AJ, Riley RD. Meta-analysis of randomized phase II trials to inform subsequent phase III decisions. Trials. 2014 Sep 3;15:346. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-15-346. PubMed PMID: 25187348; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4162965.

Pincus T, Miles C, Froud R, Underwood M, Carnes D, Taylor SJ. Methodological criteria for the assessment of moderators in systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials: a consensus study. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2011 Jan 31;11:14. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-11-14. PubMed PMID: 21281501; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3044921.

Achana FA, Cooper NJ, Bujkiewicz S, Hubbard SJ, Kendrick D, Jones DR, Sutton AJ. Network meta-analysis of multiple outcome measures accounting for borrowing of information across outcomes. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2014 Jul 21;14:92. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-14-92. PubMed PMID: 25047164; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4142066.

Zhang J, Carlin BP, Neaton JD, Soon GG, Nie L, Kane R, Virnig BA, Chu H. Network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials: reporting the proper summaries. Clin Trials. 2014 Apr;11(2):246-62. doi: 10.1177/1740774513498322. Epub 2013 Oct 3. PubMed PMID: 24096635; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3972291.

Neupane B, Richer D, Bonner AJ, Kibret T, Beyene J. Network meta-analysis using R: a review of currently available automated packages. PLoS One. 2014 Dec 26;9(12):e115065. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115065. eCollection 2014. Review. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0123364. PubMed PMID: 25541687; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4277278.

28: Hróbjartsson A, Thomsen AS, Emanuelsson F, Tendal B, Hilden J, Boutron I, Ravaud P, Brorson S. Observer bias in randomized clinical trials with measurement scale outcomes: a systematic review of trials with both blinded and nonblinded assessors. CMAJ. 2013 Mar 5;185(4):E201-11. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.120744. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 23359047; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3589328.

Caldwell DM. An overview of conducting systematic reviews with network meta-analysis. Syst Rev. 2014 Sep 29;3:109. doi: 10.1186/2046-4053-3-109. Review. PubMed PMID: 25267336; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4183945.

Akl EA, Briel M, You JJ, Sun X, Johnston BC, Busse JW, Mulla S, Lamontagne F, Bassler D, Vera C, Alshurafa M, Katsios CM, Zhou Q, Cukierman-Yaffe T, Gangji A, Mills EJ, Walter SD, Cook DJ, Schünemann HJ, Altman DG, Guyatt GH. Potential impact on estimated treatment effects of information lost to follow-up in randomised controlled trials (LOST-IT): systematic review. BMJ. 2012 May 18;344:e2809. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e2809. Review. PubMed PMID: 22611167.

Schriger DL, Savage DF, Altman DG. Presentation of continuous outcomes in randomised trials: an observational study. BMJ. 2012 Dec 18;345:e8486. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e8486. PubMed PMID: 23249670.

Mavridis D, Giannatsi M, Cipriani A, Salanti G. A primer on network meta-analysis with emphasis on mental health. Evid Based Ment Health. 2015 May;18(2):40-6. doi: 10.1136/eb-2015-102088. PubMed PMID: 25908686.

Wilcken NR, Gebski VJ, Pike R, Keech AC. Putting results of a clinical trial into perspective. Med J Aust. 2007 Apr 2;186(7):368-70. PubMed PMID: 17407436.

Hopewell S, Dutton S, Yu LM, Chan AW, Altman DG. The quality of reports of randomised trials in 2000 and 2006: comparative study of articles indexed in PubMed. BMJ. 2010 Mar 23;340:c723. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c723. PubMed PMID: 20332510; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2844941.

Beller EM, Gebski V, Keech AC. Randomisation in clinical trials. Med J Aust. 2002 Nov 18;177(10):565-7. PubMed PMID: 12429008.

Groenwold RH, Moons KG, Vandenbroucke JP. Randomized trials with missing outcome data: how to analyze and what to report. CMAJ. 2014 Oct 21;186(15):1153-7. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.131353. Epub 2014 Apr 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 24778353; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4203602.

Jackson D, Riley RD. A refined method for multivariate meta-analysis and meta-regression. Stat Med. 2014 Feb 20;33(4):541-54. doi: 10.1002/sim.5957. Epub 2013 Aug 29. PubMed PMID: 23996351; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4285306.

Kahan BC, Morris TP. Reporting and analysis of trials using stratified randomisation in leading medical journals: review and reanalysis. BMJ. 2012 Sep 14;345:e5840. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e5840. Review. PubMed PMID: 22983531; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3444136.

Montgomery AA, Astin MP, Peters TJ. Reporting of factorial trials of complex interventions in community settings: a systematic review. Trials. 2011 Jul 19;12:179. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-12-179. Review. PubMed PMID: 21771302; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3157424.

Bafeta A, Trinquart L, Seror R, Ravaud P. Reporting of results from network meta-analyses: methodological systematic review.BMJ. 2014 Mar 11;348:g1741. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g1741. Review. PubMed PMID: 24618053; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3949412.

Mihaylova B, Briggs A, O'Hagan A, Thompson SG. Review of statistical methods for analysing healthcare resources and costs. Health Econ. 2011 Aug;20(8):897-916. doi: 10.1002/hec.1653. Epub 2010 Aug 27. Review. PubMed PMID: 20799344; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3470917.

Wright N, Ivers N, Eldridge S, Taljaard M, Bremner S. A review of the use of covariates in cluster randomized trials uncovers marked discrepancies between guidance and practice. J Clin Epidemiol. 2015 Jun;68(6):603-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.12.006. Epub 2014 Dec 30. Review. PubMed PMID: 25648791; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4425474.

Hempel S, Miles JN, Booth MJ, Wang Z, Morton SC, Shekelle PG. Risk of bias: a simulation study of power to detect study-level moderator effects in meta-analysis. Syst Rev. 2013 Nov 28;2:107. doi: 10.1186/2046-4053-2-107. PubMed PMID: 24286208; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4219184.

Kim NY, Bangdiwala SI, Thaler K, Gartlehner G. SAMURAI: Sensitivity analysis of a meta-analysis with unpublished but registered analytical investigations (software). Syst Rev. 2014 Mar 18;3:27. doi: 10.1186/2046-4053-3-27. PubMed PMID: 24641974; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4021727.

Nüesch E, Trelle S, Reichenbach S, Rutjes AW, Tschannen B, Altman DG, Egger M, Jüni P. Small study effects in meta-analyses of osteoarthritis trials: meta-epidemiological study. BMJ. 2010 Jul 16;341:c3515. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c3515. PubMed PMID: 20639294; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2905513.

He Q, Zhang HH, Avery CL, Lin DY. Sparse meta-analysis with high-dimensional data. Biostatistics. 2016 Apr;17(2):205-20. doi: 10.1093/biostatistics/kxv038. Epub 2015 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 26395907; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4834947.

Chan AW, Tetzlaff JM, Gøtzsche PC, Altman DG, Mann H, Berlin JA, Dickersin K, Hróbjartsson A, Schulz KF, Parulekar WR, Krleza-Jeric K, Laupacis A, Moher D. SPIRIT 2013 explanation and elaboration: guidance for protocols of clinical trials. BMJ. 2013 Jan 8;346:e7586. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e7586. PubMed PMID: 23303884; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3541470.

Stewart GB, Altman DG, Askie LM, Duley L, Simmonds MC, Stewart LA. Statistical analysis of individual participant data meta-analyses: a comparison of methods and recommendations for practice. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e46042. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046042. Epub 2012 Oct 3. PubMed PMID: 23056232; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3463584.

Gebski VJ, Keech AC. Statistical methods in clinical trials. Med J Aust. 2003 Feb 17;178(4):182-4. PubMed PMID: 12580749.

Altman DG, Schulz KF. Statistics notes: Concealing treatment allocation in randomised trials. BMJ. 2001 Aug 25;323(7310):446-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 11520850; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1121039.

Altman DG, Bland JM. Statistics notes. Treatment allocation in controlled trials: why randomise? BMJ. 1999 May 1;318(7192):1209. Review. PubMed PMID: 10221955; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1115595.

Bland JM, Kerry SM. Statistics notes. Trials randomised in clusters. BMJ. 1997 Sep 6;315(7108):600. Review. PubMed PMID: 9302962; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2127388.

Bland JM, Kerry SM. Statistics notes. Weighted comparison of means. BMJ. 1998 Jan 10;316(7125):129. Review. PubMed PMID: 9462320; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2665397.

Liu Z, Yao Z, Li C, Liu X, Chen H, Gao C. A step-by-step guide to the systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic and prognostic test accuracy evaluations. Br J Cancer. 2013 Jun 11;108(11):2299-303. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2013.185. Epub 2013 May 21. PubMed PMID: 23695015; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3681011.

Treweek S, Mitchell E, Pitkethly M, Cook J, Kjeldstrøm M, Taskila T, Johansen M, Sullivan F, Wilson S, Jackson C, Jones R. Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):MR000013. doi: 10.1002/14651858.MR000013.pub4. Review. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(4):MR000013. PubMed PMID: 20091668.

Simes RJ, Gebski VJ, Keech AC. Subgroup analysis: application to individual patient decisions. Med J Aust. 2004 May 3;180(9):467-9. PubMed PMID: 15115428.

Crowther M, Lim W, Crowther MA. Systematic review and meta-analysis methodology. Blood. 2010 Oct 28;116(17):3140-6. doi: 10.1182/blood-2010-05-280883. Epub 2010 Jul 23. Review. PubMed PMID: 20656933.

Thomas D, Radji S, Benedetti A. Systematic review of methods for individual patient data meta-analysis with binary outcomes.BMC Med Res Methodol. 2014 Jun 19;14:79. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-14-79. Review. PubMed PMID: 24943877; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4074845.

Barnard KD, Dent L, Cook A. A systematic review of models to predict recruitment to multicentre clinical trials. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2010 Jul 6;10:63. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-10-63. Review. PubMed PMID: 20604946; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2908107.

Sena ES, Currie GL, McCann SK, Macleod MR, Howells DW. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of preclinical studies: why perform them and how to appraise them critically. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014 May;34(5):737-42. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2014.28. Epub 2014 Feb 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 24549183; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4013765.

da Costa BR, Juni P. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized trials: principles and pitfalls. Eur Heart J. 2014 Dec 14;35(47):3336-45. PubMed PMID: 25416325.

Altman DG. Systematic reviews of evaluations of prognostic variables. BMJ. 2001 Jul 28;323(7306):224-8. PubMed PMID: 11473921; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1120839.

Vale CL, Rydzewska LH, Rovers MM, Emberson JR, Gueyffier F, Stewart LA; Cochrane IPD Meta-analysis Methods Group. Uptake of systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on individual participant data in clinical practice guidelines: descriptive study. BMJ. 2015 Mar 6;350:h1088. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h1088. PubMed PMID: 25747860; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4353308.

Boulkedid R, Abdoul H, Loustau M, Sibony O, Alberti C. Using and reporting the Delphi method for selecting healthcare quality indicators: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20476. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020476. Epub 2011 Jun 9. Review. PubMed PMID: 21694759; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3111406.

Sullivan SM, Coyle D, Wells G. What guidance are researchers given on how to present network meta-analyses to end-users such as policymakers and clinicians? A systematic review. PLoS One. 2014 Dec 17;9(12):e113277. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113277. eCollection 2014. Review. PubMed PMID: 25517510; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4269433.

Sedgwick P. What is publication bias in a meta-analysis? BMJ. 2015 Aug 14;351:h4419. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h4419. PubMed PMID: 26276792.

Bonell CP, Hargreaves J, Cousens S, Ross D, Hayes R, Petticrew M, Kirkwood BR. Alternatives to randomisation in the evaluation of public health interventions: design challenges and solutions. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011 Jul;65(7):582-7. doi: 10.1136/jech.2008.082602. Epub 2009 Feb 12. Review. PubMed PMID: 19213758.

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