Torture - trauma and pre-settlement issues articles

Guide to access categories

Free online

Select the links in the titles for free online access.

Request from library

Request these items through the Library service using our form or free-form email to

Database access

These references are available in full-text via the College's database subscriptions, which require your College username and password. Accessing them is a three-step process.

  1. Activate the Library’s customised version of PubMed.
  2. Activate full sessions of the Proquest and EBSCOhost databases.
  3. Select the titles of articles for full text access.

Stade K, Skammeritz S, Hjortkjær C, Carlsson J. "After all the traumas my body has been through, I feel good that it is still working." - Basic Body Awareness Therapy for traumatised refugees. Torture. 2015;25(1):33-50. PubMed PMID: 26021346.

Sundvall M, Tidemalm DH, Titelman DE, Runeson B, Bäärnhielm S. Assessment and treatment of asylum seekers after a suicide attempt: a comparative study of people registered at mental health services in a Swedish location. BMC Psychiatry. 2015 Oct 7;15:235. doi: 10.1186/s12888-015-0613-8. PubMed PMID: 26446409; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4597378.

Abdulcadir J, Margairaz C, Boulvain M, Irion O. Care of women with female genital mutilation/cutting. Swiss Med Wkly. 2011 Jan 6;140:w13137. doi: 10.4414/smw.2010.13137. Review. PubMed PMID: 21213149.

Gardiner J, Walker K. Compassionate listening - managing psychological trauma in refugees. Aust Fam Physician. 2010 Apr;39(4):198-203. PubMed PMID: 20372677.

Longacre M, Silver-Highfield E, Lama P, Grodin M. Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of refugees and survivors of torture: a review and proposal for action. Torture. 2012;22(1):38-57. Review. PubMed PMID: 23086004.

Lamkaddem M, Stronks K, Devillé WD, Olff M, Gerritsen AA, Essink-Bot ML. Course of post-traumatic stress disorder and health care utilisation among resettled refugees in the Netherlands. BMC Psychiatry. 2014 Mar 27;14:90. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-14-90. PubMed PMID: 24670251; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3986925.

Shawyer F, Enticott JC, Doherty AR, Block AA, Cheng IH, Wahidi S, Meadows GN. A cross-sectional survey of the mental health needs of refugees and asylum seekers attending a refugee health clinic: a study protocol for using research to inform local service delivery. BMC Psychiatry. 2014 Dec 24;14:356. doi: 10.1186/s12888-014-0356-y. PubMed PMID: 25539842; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4296526.

Harris DA. Dance/movement therapy approaches to fostering resilience and recovery among African adolescent torture survivors. Torture. 2007;17(2):134-55. PubMed PMID: 17728491.

Buhmann C, Mortensen EL, Nordentoft M, Ryberg J, Ekstrøm M. Follow-up studyof the treatment outcomes at a psychiatric trauma clinic for refugees. Torture. 2015;25(1):1-16. PubMed PMID: 26021344.

Hollander AC, Bruce D, Burström B, Ekblad S. Gender-related mental health differences between refugees and non-refugee immigrants--a cross-sectional register-based study. BMC Public Health. 2011 Mar 24;11:180. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-180. PubMed PMID: 21435212; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3072337.

Kira IA, Ahmed A, Mahmoud V, Wasim F. Group therapy model for refugee and torture survivors. Torture. 2010;20(2):108-13. PubMed PMID: 20952827.

Georgiadou E, Morawa E, Erim Y. High Manifestations of Mental Distress in Arabic Asylum Seekers Accommodated in Collective Centers for Refugees in Germany. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jun 7;14(6). pii: E612. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14060612. PubMed PMID: 28590438; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5486298.

Schock K, Rosner R, Knaevelsrud C. Impact of asylum interviews on the mental health of traumatized asylum seekers. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2015 Sep 1;6:26286. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v6.26286. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26333540; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4558273.

Bandeira M, Higson-Smith C, Bantjes M, Polatin P. The land of milk and honey: a picture of refugee torture survivors presenting for treatment in a South African trauma centre. Torture. 2010;20(2):92-103. PubMed PMID: 20952825.

Vaage AB, Thomsen PH, Silove D, Wentzel-Larsen T, Van Ta T, Hauff E. Long-term mental health of Vietnamese refugees in the aftermath of trauma. Br J Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;196(2):122-5. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.108.059139. Erratum in: Br J Psychiatry. 2010 Mar;196:248. PubMed PMID: 20118457.

Benson J, Haris TA, Saaid B. The meaning and the story: reflecting on a refugee's experiences of mental health services in Australia. Ment Health Fam Med. 2010 Mar;7(1):3-8. PubMed PMID: 22477917; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2925159.

Vostanis P. Meeting the mental health needs of refugees and asylum seekers. Br J Psychiatry. 2014 Mar;204(3):176-7. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.134742. PubMed PMID: 24590972.

Abbara A, Coutts A, Fouad FM, Ismail SA, Orcutt M; Syria Public Health Network. Mental Health among displaced Syrians: findings from the Syria PublicHealth Network. J R Soc Med. 2016 Mar;109(3):88-90. doi: 10.1177/0141076816629765. PubMed PMID: 26819236.

Slewa-Younan S, Mond J, Bussion E, Mohammad Y, Uribe Guajardo MG, Smith M, Milosevic D, Lujic S, Jorm AF. Mental health literacy of resettled Iraqi refugees in Australia: knowledge about posttraumatic stress disorder and beliefs about helpfulness of interventions. BMC Psychiatry. 2014 Nov 18;14:320. doi: 10.1186/s12888-014-0320-x. PubMed PMID: 25403955; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4240884.

Heeren M, Mueller J, Ehlert U, Schnyder U, Copiery N, Maier T. Mental health of asylum seekers: a cross-sectional study of psychiatric disorders. BMC Psychiatry. 2012 Aug 17;12:114. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-12-114. PubMed PMID: 22900706; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3490796.

Mueller J, Schmidt M, Staeheli A, Maier T. Mental health of failed asylum seekers as compared with pending and temporarily accepted asylum seekers. Eur J Public Health. 2011 Apr;21(2):184-9. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckq016. Epub 2010 Jul 14. PubMed PMID: 20630907.

Straiton ML, Reneflot A, Diaz E. Mental Health of Refugees and Non-refugees from War-Conflict Countries: Data from Primary Healthcare Services and the Norwegian Prescription Database. J Immigr Minor Health. 2017 Jun;19(3):582-589. doi: 10.1007/s10903-016-0450-y. PubMed PMID: 27328949; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5399054.

Shawyer F. et al. The mental health status of refugees and asylum seekers attending a refugee health clinic including comparisons with a matched sample of Australian-born residents. BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Feb 21;17(1):76. doi: 10.1186/s12888-017-1239-9. PubMed PMID: 28222713; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5320723.

Dennis CL. et al. Postpartum depression risk factors among recent refugee, asylum-seeking, non-refugee immigrant, and Canadian-born women: results from a prospective cohort study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2017 Apr;52(4):411-422. doi: 10.1007/s00127-017-1353-5. Epub 2017 Feb 20. PubMed PMID: 28220215.

Rasmussen A, Verkuilen J, Ho E, Fan Y. Posttraumatic stress disorder among refugees: Measurement invariance of Harvard Trauma Questionnaire scores across global regions and response patterns. Psychol Assess. 2015 Dec;27(4):1160-70. doi: 10.1037/pas0000115. PubMed PMID: 25894706; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4615261.

Nickerson A, Liddell BJ, Maccallum F, Steel Z, Silove D, Bryant RA. Posttraumatic stress disorder and prolonged grief in refugees exposed to trauma and loss. BMC Psychiatry. 2014 Apr 9;14:106. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-14-106. PubMed PMID: 24712883; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3998219.

Richter K, Peter L, Lehfeld H, Zäske H, Brar-Reissinger S, Niklewski G. Prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses in asylum seekers with follow-up. BMC Psychiatry. 2018 Jun 20;18(1):206. doi: 10.1186/s12888-018-1783-y. PubMed PMID: 29925338; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6011353.

Eckstein B. Primary care for refugees. Am Fam Physician. 2011 Feb 15;83(4):429-36. Review. PubMed PMID: 21322519.

Schoretsanitis G, Eisenhardt S, Ricklin ME, Srivastava DS, Walther S, Exadaktylos A. Psychiatric Emergencies of Asylum Seekers; Descriptive Analysis and Comparison with Immigrants of Warranted Residence. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Jun 21;15(7). pii: E1300. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15071300. PubMed PMID: 29933607; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6068840.

Neuner F, Schauer M, Karunakara U, Klaschik C, Robert C, Elbert T. Psychological trauma and evidence for enhanced vulnerability for posttraumatic stress disorder through previous trauma among West Nile refugees. BMC Psychiatry. 2004 Oct 25;4:34. PubMed PMID: 15504233; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC529265.

Shannon PJ. Refugees' advice to physicians: how to ask about mental health. Fam Pract. 2014 Aug;31(4):462-6. doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmu017. Epub 2014 May 12. PubMed PMID: 24820520.

Hollander AC, Dal H, Lewis G, Magnusson C, Kirkbride JB, Dalman C. Refugee migration and risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses: cohort study of 1.3 million people in Sweden. BMJ. 2016 Mar 15;352:i1030. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i1030. PubMed PMID: 26979256; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4793153.

McColl H, Higson-Smith C, Gjerding S, Omar MH, Rahman BA, Hamed M, El Dawla AS, Fredericks M, Paulsen N, Shabalala G, Low-Shang C, Perez FV, Colin LS, Hernandez AD, Lavaire E, Zuñiga AP, Calidonio L, Martinez CL, Jamei YA, Awad Z. Rehabilitation of torture survivors in five countries: common themes and challenges. Int J Ment Health Syst. 2010 Jun 18;4:16. doi: 10.1186/1752-4458-4-16. PubMed PMID: 20565852; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2904711.

Stotz SJ, Elbert T, Müller V, Schauer M. The relationship between trauma, shame, and guilt: findings from a community-based study of refugee minors in Germany. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2015 Jun 22;6:25863. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v6.25863. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26105045; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4478074.

Opaas M, Varvin S. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2015 Sep;203(9):684-95. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000330. PubMed PMID: 26103604; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4554230.

Lueger-Schuster B. Supporting interventions after exposure to torture. Torture. 2010;20(1):32-44. PubMed PMID: 20228452.

Dapunt J, Kluge U, Heinz A. Risk of psychosis in refugees: a literature review. Transl Psychiatry. 2017 Jun 13;7(6):e1149. doi: 10.1038/tp.2017.119. Review. PubMed PMID: 28608852; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5537641.

Grodin MA, Piwowarczyk L, Fulker D, Bazazi AR, Saper RB. Treating survivors of torture and refugee trauma: a preliminary case series using qigong and t'aichi. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Sep;14(7):801-6. doi: 10.1089/acm.2007.0736. Review. PubMed PMID: 18803491; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2745908.

Nordbrandt MS, Carlsson J, Lindberg LG, Sandahl H, Mortensen EL. Treatment of traumatised refugees with basic body awareness therapy versus mixed physical activity as add-on treatment: Study protocol of a randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2015 Oct 22;16(1):477. doi: 10.1186/s13063-015-0974-9. PubMed PMID: 26492879; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4619210.

Schoretsanitis G, Bhugra D, Eisenhardt S, Ricklin ME, Srivastava DS, Exadaktylos A, Walther S. Upon Rejection: Psychiatric Emergencies of Failed Asylum Seekers. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Jul 16;15(7). pii: E1498. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15071498. PubMed PMID: 30012985; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6069106.

Brink DR, Shannon PJ, Vinson GA. Validation of a brief mental health screener for Karen refugees in primary care. Fam Pract. 2016 Feb;33(1):107-11. doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmv093. PubMed PMID: 26613619.

Napolitano F, Gualdieri L, Santagati G, Angelillo IF. Violence Experience among Immigrants and Refugees: A Cross-Sectional Study in Italy. Biomed Res Int. 2018 Sep 23;2018:7949483. doi: 10.1155/2018/7949483. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 30345306; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6174783.

Savic M, Chur-Hansen A, Mahmood MA, Moore VM. 'We don't have to go and see a special person to solve this problem': Trauma, mental health beliefs and processes for addressing 'mental health issues' among Sudanese refugees in Australia. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2016 Feb;62(1):76-83. doi: 10.1177/0020764015595664. PubMed PMID: 26721539.

Duncan G, Shepherd M, Symons J. Working with refugees--a manual for caseworkers and volunteers. Rural Remote Health. 2010 Oct-Dec;10(4):1406. Epub 2010 Nov 22. PubMed PMID: 21121699.

Augsburger M, Elbert T. When do traumatic experiences alter risk-taking behavior? A machine learning analysis of reports from refugees. PLoS One. 2017 May 12;12(5):e0177617. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177617. eCollection 2017. PubMed PMID: 28498865; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5428957.


Palic S, Carlsson J, Armour C, Elklit A. Assessment of dissociation in Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees in Denmark.Nord J Psychiatry. 2015 May;69(4):307-14. doi: 10.3109/08039488.2014.977344. Epub 2014 Nov 21. PubMed PMID: 25415764.

Newman L. Asylum seekers and refugees - how should psychiatry respond? Australas Psychiatry. 2016 Feb;24(1):5-6. doi: 10.1177/1039856215622312. PubMed PMID: 26850944.

Nickerson A, Steel Z, Bryant R, Brooks R, Silove D. Change in visa status amongst Mandaean refugees: relationship to psychological symptoms and living difficulties. Psychiatry Res. 2011 May 15;187(1-2):267-74. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2010.12.015. Epub 2011 Feb 5. PubMed PMID: 21296428.

Kocamer Simsek B, et al. Characteristics of the injuries of Syrian refugees sustained during the civil war. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2017 May;23(3):199-206. doi: 10.5505/tjtes.2016.95525. PubMed PMID: 28530772.

Collaborative care for refugees and torture survivors: Key findings from the literature. Esala J. Traumatology. 2018.

Schnyder U, Müller J, Morina N, Schick M, Bryant RA, Nickerson A. A Comparison of DSM-5 and DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Traumatized Refugees. J Trauma Stress. 2015 Aug;28(4):267-74. doi: 10.1002/jts.22023. Epub 2015 Jul 20. PubMed PMID: 26194738.

Doolan EL et al. The conceptualization of emotion regulation difficulties, and its association with posttraumatic stress symptoms in traumatized refugees. J Anxiety Disord. 2017 Aug;50:7-14. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2017.04.005. Epub 2017 Apr 26. PubMed PMID: 28505466.

Nickerson A, Bryant RA, Silove D, Steel Z. A critical review of psychological treatments of posttraumatic stress disorder in refugees. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011 Apr;31(3):399-417. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.10.004. Epub 2010 Nov 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 21112681.

Wright AM, Aldhalimi A, Lumley MA, Jamil H, Pole N, Arnetz JE, Arnetz BB. Determinants of resource needs and utilization among refugees over time. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2016 Apr;51(4):539-49. doi: 10.1007/s00127-015-1121-3. PubMed PMID: 26370213; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4791200.

Dalgaard NT, Montgomery E. Disclosure and silencing: A systematic review of the literature on patterns of trauma communication in refugee families. Transcult Psychiatry. 2015 Feb 5. pii: 1363461514568442. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25656844.

Hollifield M, Toolson EC, Verbillis-Kolp S, Farmer B, Yamazaki J, Woldehaimanot T, Holland A. Effective Screening for Emotional Distress in Refugees: The Refugee Health Screener. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2016 Apr;204(4):247-53. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000469. PubMed PMID: 26825376.

Shrestha-Ranjit J. et al. Effectiveness of Primary Health Care Services in Addressing Mental Health Needs of Minority Refugee Population in New Zealand. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2017 Apr;38(4):290-300. doi: 10.1080/01612840.2017.1283375. Epub 2017 Mar 1. PubMed PMID: 28379739.

Le L, Morina N, Schnyder U, Schick M, Bryant RA, Nickerson A. The effects of perceived torture controllability on symptom severity of posttraumatic stress, depression and anger in refugees and asylum seekers: A path analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2018 Jun;264:143-150. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.03.055. Epub 2018 Mar 23. PubMed PMID: 29631246.

Ullmann E, Barthel A, Taché S, Bornstein A, Licinio J, Bornstein SR. Emotional and psychological trauma in refugees arriving in Germany in 2015. Mol Psychiatry. 2015 Nov 3. doi: 10.1038/mp.2015.164. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26527128.

Ullmann E, Barthel A, Taché S, Bornstein A, Licinio J, Bornstein SR. Emotional and psychological trauma in refugees arriving in Germany in 2015. Mol Psychiatry. 2015 Nov 3. doi: 10.1038/mp.2015.164. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26527128.

Ellis BH, MacDonald HZ, Klunk-Gillis J, Lincoln A, Strunin L, Cabral HJ. Discrimination and mental health among Somali refugee adolescents: the role of acculturation and gender. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2010 Oct;80(4):564-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01061.x. PubMed PMID: 20950297.

Nickerson A, Bryant RA, Schnyder U, Schick M, Mueller J, Morina N. Emotion dysregulation mediates the relationship between trauma exposure, post-migration living difficulties and psychological outcomes in traumatized refugees. J Affect Disord. 2015 Mar 1;173:185-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.043. Epub 2014 Nov 4. PubMed PMID: 25462415.

Priebe S, Bogic M, Ashcroft R, Franciskovic T, Galeazzi GM, Kucukalic A, Lecic-Tosevski D, Morina N, Popovski M, Roughton M, Schützwohl M, Ajdukovic D. Experience of human rights violations and subsequent mental disorders - a study following the war in the Balkans. Soc Sci Med. 2010 Dec;71(12):2170-7. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.09.029. Epub 2010 Oct 30. PubMed PMID: 21041008.

Bartelson AR, Sutherland MA. Experiences of Trauma and Implications for Nurses Caring for Undocumented Immigrant Women and Refugee Women. Nurs Womens Health. 2018 Oct;22(5):411-416. doi: 10.1016/j.nwh.2018.07.003. Epub 2018 Aug 23. Review. PubMed PMID: 30144417.

Shannon PJ, Wieling E, McCleary JS, Becher E. Exploring the mental health effects of political trauma with newly arrived refugees. Qual Health Res. 2015 Apr;25(4):443-57. doi: 10.1177/1049732314549475. Epub 2014 Sep 2. PubMed PMID: 25185161.

Slobodin O, de Jong JT. Family interventions in traumatized immigrants and refugees: A systematic review. Transcult Psychiatry. 2015 Jun 5. pii: 1363461515588855. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 26047828.

Carlsson J, Sonne C, Silove D. From pioneers to scientists: challenges in establishing evidence-gathering models in torture and trauma mental health services for refugees. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2014 Sep;202(9):630-7. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000175. Review. PubMed PMID: 25167130.

Hedrick K. Getting out of (self-) harm's way: A study of factors associated with self-harm among asylum seekers in Australian immigration detention. J Forensic Leg Med. 2017 Jul;49:89-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2017.05.014. Epub 2017 May 26. PubMed PMID: 28601787.

Gulden A, Westermeyer J, Lien R, Spring M, Johnson D, Butcher J, Jaranson J. HADStress screen for posttraumatic stress: replication in ethiopian refugees. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 Oct;198(10):762-7. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181f49c0a. PubMed PMID: 20921868.

Isakson BL, Jurkovic GJ. Healing after torture: the role of moving on. Qual Health Res. 2013 Jun;23(6):749-61. doi: 10.1177/1049732313482048. Epub 2013 Mar 19. PubMed PMID: 23512436.

Keatley E, d'Alfonso A, Abeare C, Keller A, Bertelsen NS. Health Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury Among Refugee Survivors of Torture. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25629258.

Yun K, Mohamad Z, Kiss L, Annamalai A, Zimmerman C. History of Persecution and Health Outcomes Among U.S. Refugees. J Immigr Minor Health. 2015 Mar 5. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25740552.

De Haene L, Grietens H, Verschueren K. Holding harm: narrative methods in mental health research on refugee trauma.Qual Health Res. 2010 Dec;20(12):1664-76. doi: 10.1177/1049732310376521. Epub 2010 Jul 27. PubMed PMID: 20663941.

Arntz A, Sofi D, van Breukelen G. Imagery Rescripting as treatment for complicated PTSD in refugees: a multiple baseline case series study. Behav Res Ther. 2013 Jun;51(6):274-83. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2013.02.009. Epub 2013 Mar 6. PubMed PMID: 23524061.

Rew KT, Clarke SL, Gossa W, Savin D. Immigrant and refugee health: mental health conditions. FP Essent. 2014 Aug;423:19-23. PubMed PMID: 25127536.

Nickerson A, Bryant RA, Steel Z, Silove D, Brooks R. The impact of fear for family on mental health in a resettled Iraqi refugee community. J Psychiatr Res. 2010 Mar;44(4):229-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.08.006. Epub 2009 Oct 28. PubMed PMID: 19875131.

Sangalang CC, Vang C. Intergenerational Trauma in Refugee Families: A Systematic Review. J Immigr Minor Health. 2017 Jun;19(3):745-754. doi: 10.1007/s10903-016-0499-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 27659490; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5362358.

Sander R, Laugesen H, Skammeritz S, Mortensen EL, Carlsson J. Interpreter-mediated psychotherapy with trauma-affected refugees - A retrospective cohort study. Psychiatry Res. 2019 Jan;271:684-692. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.058. Epub 2018 Dec 10. PubMed PMID: 30791342.

Hollifield M, Warner TD, Westermeyer J.Is torture reliably assessed and a valid indicator of poor mental health? J Nerv Ment Dis. 2011 Jan;199(1):3-10. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182051501. PubMed PMID: 21206240.

Carlsson JM, Olsen DR, Kastrup M, Mortensen EL. Late mental health changes in tortured refugees in multidisciplinary treatment. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 Nov;198(11):824-8. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181f97be3. PubMed PMID: 21048474.

Buhmann CB, Nordentoft M, Ekstroem M, Carlsson J, Mortensen EL. Long-term treatment effect of trauma-affected refugees with flexible cognitive behavioural therapy and antidepressants. Psychiatry Res. 2018 Jun;264:217-223. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.03.069. Epub 2018 Apr 4. PubMed PMID: 29655114.

Correa-Velez I, Gifford SM, Barnett AG. Longing to belong: social inclusion and wellbeing among youth with refugee backgrounds in the first three years in Melbourne, Australia. Soc Sci Med. 2010 Oct;71(8):1399-408. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.07.018. Epub 2010 Aug 5. PubMed PMID: 20822841.

Morville AL, Amris K, Eklund M, Danneskiold-Samsøe B, Erlandsson LK. A longitudinal study of changes in asylum seekers ability regarding activities of daily living during their stay in the asylum center. J Immigr Minor Health. 2015 Jun;17(3):852-9. doi: 10.1007/s10903-014-0004-0. PubMed PMID: 24627172.

Luster T, Qin D, Bates L, Johnson D, Rana M. The Lost Boys of Sudan: coping with ambiguous loss and separation from parents. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2009 Apr;79(2):203-11. doi: 10.1037/a0015559. PubMed PMID: 19485637.

Coffey GJ, Kaplan I, Sampson RC, Tucci MM. The meaning and mental health consequences of long-term immigration detention for people seeking asylum. Soc Sci Med. 2010 Jun;70(12):2070-9. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.02.042. Epub 2010 Mar 20. PubMed PMID: 20378223.

Felsman IC, Humphreys JC, Kronk R. Measuring Distress Levels of Refugee Women to Enhance Community-Based Psycho-social Interventions. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2019 Apr;40(4):310-316. doi: 10.1080/01612840.2018.1543744. Epub 2019 Jan 11. PubMed PMID: 30633707.

Kinzie, David J. Medical Approach to the Management of Traumatised Refugees. Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 2016 22(2): 76-83.

Hocking DC, Kennedy GA, Sundram S. Mental disorders in asylum seekers: the role of the refugee determination process and employment. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2015 Jan;203(1):28-32. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000230. PubMed PMID: 25503784.

Molsa M. et al. Mental health among older refugees: the role of trauma, discrimination, and religiousness. Aging Ment Health. 2017 Aug;21(8):829-837. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2016.1165183. Epub 2016 Apr 15. PubMed PMID: 27080403.

Abbott A. The mental-health crisis among migrants. Nature. 2016 Oct 13;538(7624):158-160. doi: 10.1038/538158a. Erratum in: Nature. 2016 Oct 25;538(7626):441. PubMed PMID: 27734887.

Muhtz C, Wittekind C, Godemann K, Von Alm C, Jelinek L, Yassouridis A, Kellner M. Mental Health in Offspring of Traumatized Refugees with and without Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Stress Health. 2015 Jan 2. doi: 10.1002/smi.2630. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25556841.

Slobodin O, de Jong JT. Mental health interventions for traumatized asylum seekers and refugees: What do we know about their efficacy? Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2015 Feb;61(1):17-26. doi: 10.1177/0020764014535752. Epub 2014 May 27. PubMed PMID: 24869847.

Abou-Saleh MT, Hughes P. Mental health of Syrian refugees: looking backwards and forwards. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Oct;2(10):870-1. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00419-8. Epub 2015 Sep 14. PubMed PMID: 26462218.

Johnson-Agbakwu CE, Allen J, Nizigiyimana JF, Ramirez G, Hollifield M. Mental health screening among newly arrived refugees seeking routine obstetric and gynecologic care. Psychol Serv. 2014 Nov;11(4):470-6. doi: 10.1037/a0036400. PubMed PMID: 25383999; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4228798.

Graham B, Herlihy J, Brewin CR. Overgeneral memory in asylum seekers and refugees. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2014 Sep;45(3):375-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2014.03.001. Epub 2014 Apr 12. PubMed PMID: 24799151.

Williams AC, Peña CR, Rice AS. Persistent pain in survivors of torture: a cohort study. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010 Nov;40(5):715-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.02.018. Epub 2010 Aug 3. PubMed PMID: 20678891.

Upvall MJ, Mohammed K, Dodge PD. Perspectives of Somali Bantu refugee women living with circumcision in the United States: a focus group approach. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009 Mar;46(3):360-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.04.009. Epub 2008 Jun 11. PubMed PMID: 18550061.

Sonne C, Carlsson J, Bech P, Mortensen EL. Pharmacological treatment of refugees with trauma-related disorders: What do we know today? Transcult Psychiatry. 2017 Apr;54(2):260-280. doi: 10.1177/1363461516682180. Epub 2016 Dec 12. Review. PubMed PMID: 27956478.

Løvlie AL, Madar AA. Postpartum Depression Among Somali Women in Norway. J Immigr Minor Health. 2017 Jun;19(3):638-644. doi: 10.1007/s10903-016-0487-y. PubMed PMID: 27640012.

Chung MC, Shakra M, AlQarni N, AlMazrouei M, Al Mazrouei S, Al Hashimi S. Posttraumatic Stress Among Syrian Refugees: Trauma Exposure Characteristics, Trauma Centrality, and Emotional Suppression. Psychiatry. 2018 Spring;81(1):54-70. doi: 10.1080/00332747.2017.1354620. Epub 2018 Mar 1. PubMed PMID: 29494788.

Rasmussen A, Verkuilen J, Ho E, Fan Y. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Refugees: Measurement Invariance of Harvard Trauma Questionnaire Scores Across Global Regions and Response Patterns. Psychol Assess. 2015 Apr 20. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25894706.

Yayan EH. Post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health states of refugee children. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2018 Dec;32(6):885-889. doi: 10.1016/j.apnu.2018.07.003. Epub 2018 Jul 19. PubMed PMID: 30454633.

Chung MC, AlQarni N, AlMazrouei M, Al Muhairi S, Shakra M, Mitchell B, Al Mazrouei S, Al Hashimi S. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Psychiatric Co-morbidity among Syrian Refugees of Different Ages: the Role of Trauma Centrality. Psychiatr Q. 2018 Dec;89(4):909-921. doi: 10.1007/s11126-018-9586-3. PubMed PMID: 29981008.

Renner W, Salem I. Post-traumatic stress in asylum seekers and refugees from Chechnya, Afghanistan, and West Africa: gender differences in symptomatology and coping. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2009 Mar;55(2):99-108. doi: 10.1177/0020764008092341. PubMed PMID: 19240200.

Kinzie JD, Kinzie JM, Sedighi B, Woticha A, Mohamed H, Riley C. Prospective one-year treatment outcomes of tortured refugees: a psychiatric approach.Torture. 2012;22(1):1-10. PubMed PMID: 23086001.

Wiegersma PA, Stellinga-Boelen AA, Reijneveld SA. Psychosocial problems in asylum seekers' children: the parent, child, and teacher perspective using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2011 Feb;199(2):85-90. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e31820446d2. PubMed PMID: 21278536.

Palic S, Kappel ML, Makransky G. Rasch Validation and Cross-Validation of the Health of Nation Outcome Scales for Monitoring of Psychiatric Disability in Traumatized Refugees in Western Psychiatric Care. Assessment. 2015 Jul 24. pii: 1073191115594690. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26209512.

Augsburger M, Dohrmann K, Schauer M, Elbert T. Relations between traumatic stress, dimensions of impulsivity, and reactive and appetitive aggression in individuals with refugee status. Psychol Trauma. 2017 Aug;9(Suppl 1):137-144. doi: 10.1037/tra0000227. Epub 2016 Nov 10. PubMed PMID: 27831734.

Hoffman J, Liddell B, Bryant RA, Nickerson A. The relationship between moral injury appraisals, trauma exposure, and mental health in refugees. Depress Anxiety. 2018 Nov;35(11):1030-1039. doi: 10.1002/da.22787. Epub 2018 Aug 10. PubMed PMID: 30095203.

Carswell K, Blackburn P, Barker C. The relationship between trauma, post-migration problems and the psychological well-being of refugees and asylum seekers. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2011 Mar;57(2):107-19. doi: 10.1177/0020764008105699. PubMed PMID: 21343209.

Opaas M, Hartmann E, Wentzel-Larsen T, Varvin S. Relationship of Pretreatment Rorschach Factors to Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Real-Life Functioning in a 3-Year Follow-Up of Traumatized Refugee Patients. J Pers Assess. 2015 Nov 3:1-14. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26528822.

Opaas M, Varvin S. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2015 May 22. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26103604.

Arnetz J, Rofa Y, Arnetz B, Ventimiglia M, Jamil H. Resilience as a protective factor against the development of psychopathology among refugees. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2013 Mar;201(3):167-72. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182848afe. PubMed PMID: 23407208; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3584239.

Hooberman J, Rosenfeld B, Rasmussen A, Keller A. Resilience in trauma-exposed Refugees: the moderating effect of coping style on resilience variables. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2010 Oct;80(4):557-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01060.x. PubMed PMID: 20950296.

Peart JM, Tracey EH, Lipoff JB. The Role of Physicians in Asylum Evaluation: Documenting Torture and Trauma. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Mar;176(3):417. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.0053. PubMed PMID: 26954057.

Piwowarczyk L, Fernandez P, Sharma A. Seeking Asylum: Challenges Faced by the LGB Community. J Immigr Minor Health. 2017 Jun;19(3):723-732. doi: 10.1007/s10903-016-0363-9. PubMed PMID: 26976005.

Newman L. Seeking asylum-trauma, mental health, and human rights: an Australian perspective. J Trauma Dissociation. 2013;14(2):213-23. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2013.724342. PubMed PMID: 23406225.

Rohlof HG, Knipscheer JW, Kleber RJ. Somatization in refugees: a review. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2014 Nov;49(11):1793-804. doi: 10.1007/s00127-014-0877-1. Epub 2014 May 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 24816685.

Slewa-Younan S, Uribe Guajardo MG, Heriseanu A, Hasan T. A Systematic Review of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Amongst Iraqi Refugees Located in Western Countries. J Immigr Minor Health. 2015 Aug;17(4):1231-9. doi: 10.1007/s10903-014-0046-3. PubMed PMID: 24899586.

Crumlish N, O'Rourke K. A systematic review of treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder among refugees and asylum-seekers. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 Apr;198(4):237-51. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181d61258. Review. PubMed PMID: 20386252.

Buch Segal L. Tattered Textures of Kinship: The Effects of Torture Among Iraqi Families in Denmark. Med Anthropol. 2018 Oct;37(7):553-567. doi: 10.1080/01459740.2018.1462807. Epub 2018 May 10. PubMed PMID: 29745732.

Eytan A, Durieux-Paillard S, Whitaker-Clinch B, Loutan L, Bovier PA. Transcultural validity of a structured diagnostic interview to screen for major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among refugees. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007 Sep;195(9):723-8. PubMed PMID: 17984771.

Regev S, Slonim-Nevo V. Trauma and mental health in Darfuri asylum seekers: The effect of trauma type and the mediating role of interpersonal sensitivity. J Affect Disord. 2019 Mar 1;246:201-208. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.12.024. Epub 2018 Dec 19. PubMed PMID: 30583146.

Kartal D, Alkemade N, Kiropoulos L. Trauma and Mental Health in Resettled Refugees: Mediating Effect of Host Language Acquisition on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms. Transcult Psychiatry. 2019 Feb;56(1):3-23. doi: 10.1177/1363461518789538. Epub 2018 Aug 17. PubMed PMID: 30117781.

Yaylaci FT. Trauma and resilient functioning among Syrian refugee children. Dev Psychopathol. 2018 Dec;30(5):1923-1936. doi: 10.1017/S0954579418001293. Epub 2018 Oct 8. PubMed PMID: 30295224.

Lambert JE, Alhassoon OM. Trauma-focused therapy for refugees: meta-analytic findings. J Couns Psychol. 2015 Jan;62(1):28-37. doi: 10.1037/cou0000048. Epub 2014 Dec 8. PubMed PMID: 25485547.

Bhui K, Warfa N. Trauma, khat and common psychotic symptoms: a quantitative study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Sep 15;131(2):459-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.06.045. Epub 2010 Jul 13. Retraction in: J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 8;134(1):202. PubMed PMID: 20633622.

Bhui K, Warfa N. Trauma, khat and common psychotic symptoms among Somali immigrants: a quantitative study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Dec 1;132(3):549-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.027. Epub 2010 Jul 18. PubMed PMID: 20647038.

Neuner F, Onyut PL, Ertl V, Odenwald M, Schauer E, Elbert T. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by trained lay counselors in an African refugee settlement: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008 Aug;76(4):686-94. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.76.4.686. PubMed PMID: 18665696.

Steel Z, Momartin S, Silove D, Coello M, Aroche J, Tay KW. Two year psychosocial and mental health outcomes for refugees subjected to restrictive or supportive immigration policies. Soc Sci Med. 2011 Apr;72(7):1149-56. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.02.007. Epub 2011 Mar 1. PubMed PMID: 21427011.

Reko A, Bech P, Wohlert C, Noerregaard C, Csillag C. Usage of psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers: Clinical implications based on a descriptive study in Denmark. Nord J Psychiatry. 2015 Mar 13:1-7. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25765437.

Gander M, Diamond D, Buchheim A, Sevecke K. Use of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System in the formulation of a case of an adolescent refugee with PTSD. J Trauma Dissociation. 2018 Oct-Dec;19(5):572-595. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2018.1451803. Epub 2018 Mar 16. PubMed PMID: 29547072.

Puvimanasinghe T, Denson LA, Augoustinos M, Somasundaram D. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Transcult Psychiatry. 2015 Dec;52(6):743-65. doi: 10.1177/1363461515577289. PubMed PMID: 25795221.

Tempany M. What research tells us about the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Sudanese refugees: a literature review. Transcult Psychiatry. 2009 Jun;46(2):300-15. doi: 10.1177/1363461509105820. PubMed PMID: 19541752.


De Haene L, Grietens H, Verschueren K. Adult attachment in the context of refugee traumatisation: the impact of organized violence and forced separation on parental states of mind regarding attachment. Attach Hum Dev. 2010 May;12(3):249-64. doi: 10.1080/14616731003759732. PubMed PMID: 20473796.

Silove D, Momartin S, Marnane C, Steel Z, Manicavasagar V. Adult separation anxiety disorder among war-affected Bosnian refugees: comorbidity with PTSD and associations with dimensions of trauma. J Trauma Stress. 2010 Feb;23(1):169-72. doi: 10.1002/jts.20490. PubMed PMID: 20135680.

Kalt A, Hossain M, Kiss L, Zimmerman C. Asylum seekers, violence and health: a systematic review of research in high-income host countries. Am J Public Health. 2013 Mar;103(3):e30-42. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.301136. Epub 2013 Jan 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 23327250.

Assiri AM. Asylum seekers and mental illness in Australia: a nursing response. Aust Nurs Midwifery J. 2014 Apr;21(9):32-5. Review. PubMed PMID: 24812775.

Neuner F, Kurreck S, Ruf M, Odenwald M, Elbert T, Schauer M. Can asylum-seekers with posttraumatic stress disorder be successfully treated? A randomized controlled pilot study. Cogn Behav Ther. 2010;39(2):81-91. doi: 10.1080/16506070903121042. PubMed PMID: 19816834.

Rasmussen A, Smith H, Keller AS. Factor structure of PTSD symptoms among West and Central African refugees. J Trauma Stress. 2007 Jun;20(3):271-80. PubMed PMID: 17597123.

Nickerson A, Bryant RA, Brooks R, Steel Z, Silove D, Chen J. The familial influence of loss and trauma on refugee mental health: a multilevel pathanalysis. J Trauma Stress. 2011 Feb;24(1):25-33. doi: 10.1002/jts.20608. Epub 2011 Jan 25. PubMed PMID: 21268119.

Ogunsiji OO, Wilkes L, Jackson D. Female genital mutilation: origin, beliefs, prevalence and implications for health care workers caring for immigrant women in Australia. Contemp Nurse. 2007 May-Jun;25(1-2):22-30. Review. PubMed PMID: 17622986.

Westermeyer JJ, Campbell R, Lien R, Spring M, Johnson DR, Butcher J, Hyland J, Thuras P, Jaranson JM. HADStress: a somatic symptom screen for posttraumatic stress among Somali refugees. Psychiatr Serv. 2010 Nov;61(11):1132-7. doi: 10.1176/ PubMed PMID: 21041353.

Strijk PJ, van Meijel B, Gamel CJ. Health and social needs of traumatized refugees and asylum seekers: an exploratory study.Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2011 Jan;47(1):48-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6163.2010.00270.x. Epub 2010 Aug 12. PubMed PMID: 21418072.

Maximova K, Krahn H. Health status of refugees settled in Alberta: changes since arrival. Can J Public Health. 2010 Jul-Aug;101(4):322-6. PubMed PMID: 21033547.

Hinton DE, Ojserkis RA, Jalal B, Peou S, Hofmann SG. Loving-kindness in the treatment of traumatized refugees and minority groups: a typology of mindfulness and the nodal network model of affect and affect regulation. J Clin Psychol. 2013 Aug;69(8):817-28. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22017. Epub 2013 Jun 19. PubMed PMID: 23784718.

Charlier P, Duverger P, Abdallah FB. Memory recall of traumatic events in refugees. Lancet. 2018 Nov 17;392(10160):2170. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32416-4. PubMed PMID: 30496100.

Hodes M. The mental health of detained asylum seeking children. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 Jul;19(7):621-3. doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0093-9. Epub 2010 Jan 30. PubMed PMID: 20119746.

Mental illness in Australian immigration detention centres. Lancet. 2010 Feb 6;375(9713):434. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60179-1. PubMed PMID: 20152528.

Ruf M, Schauer M, Neuner F, Catani C, Schauer E, Elbert T. Narrative exposure therapy for 7- to 16-year-olds: a randomized controlled trial with traumatized refugee children. J Trauma Stress. 2010 Aug;23(4):437-45. doi: 10.1002/jts.20548. PubMed PMID: 20684019.

Halvorsen JØ, Stenmark H. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in tortured refugees: a preliminary uncontrolled trial. Scand J Psychol. 2010 Dec;51(6):495-502. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2010.00821.x. PubMed PMID: 20487410.

Peltonen K, Punamäki RL. Preventive interventions among children exposed to trauma of armed conflict: a literature review.Aggress Behav. 2010 Mar-Apr;36(2):95-116. doi: 10.1002/ab.20334. Review. PubMed PMID: 19998393.

Bronstein I, Montgomery P. Psychological distress in refugee children: a systematic review. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2011 Mar;14(1):44-56. doi: 10.1007/s10567-010-0081-0. Review. PubMed PMID: 21181268.

Heeren M, Wittmann L, Ehlert U, Schnyder U, Maier T, Müller J. Psychopathology and resident status - comparing asylum seekers, refugees, illegalmigrants, labor migrants, and residents. Compr Psychiatry. 2014 May;55(4):818-25. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.02.003. Epub 2014 Feb 14. PubMed PMID: 24636190.

Yeomans PD, Forman EM, Herbert JD, Yuen E. A randomized trial of a reconciliation workshop with and without PTSD psychoeducation in Burundian sample. J Trauma Stress. 2010 Jun;23(3):305-12. doi: 10.1002/jts.20531. PubMed PMID: 20564362.

Matheson K, Jorden S, Anisman H. Relations between trauma experiences and psychological, physical and neuroendocrine functioning among Somali refugees: mediating role of coping with acculturation stressors. J Immigr Minor Health. 2008 Aug;10(4):291-304. PubMed PMID: 17939054.

Prip K, Persson AL, Sjölund BH. Self-reported activity in tortured refugees with long-term sequelae including pain and the impact of foot pain from falanga--a cross-sectional study. Disabil Rehabil. 2011;33(7):569-78. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2010.493597. Epub 2010 Jun 8. PubMed PMID: 20528254.

Droždek B, Kamperman AM, Tol WA, Knipscheer JW, Kleber RJ. Seven-year follow-up study of symptoms in asylum seekers and refugees with PTSD treated with trauma-focused groups. J Clin Psychol. 2014 Apr;70(4):376-87. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22035. Epub 2013 Sep 18. PubMed PMID: 24105446.

Robertson CL, Halcon L, Savik K, Johnson D, Spring M, Butcher J, Westermeyer J, Jaranson J. Somali and Oromo refugee women: trauma and associated factors. J Adv Nurs. 2006 Dec;56(6):577-87. PubMed PMID: 17118037.

Montgomery E. Trauma and resilience in young refugees: a 9-year follow-up study. Dev Psychopathol. 2010 May;22(2):477-89. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000180. PubMed PMID: 20423554.

Montgomery E. Trauma, exile and mental health in young refugees. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2011;(440):1-46. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01740.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 21824118.

Schweitzer R, Melville F, Steel Z, Lacherez P. Trauma, post-migration living difficulties, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment in resettled Sudanese refugees. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2006 Feb;40(2):179-87. PubMed PMID: 16476137.

Mirdal GM, Ryding E, Essendrop Sondej M. Traumatized refugees, their therapists, and their interpreters: three perspectives on psychological treatment. Psychol Psychother. 2012 Dec;85(4):436-55. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8341.2011.02036.x. Epub 2011 Sep 22. PubMed PMID: 23080532.

Franco-Paredes C. An unusual clinical presentation of posttraumatic stress disorder in a Sudanese refugee. J Immigr Minor Health. 2010 Apr;12(2):267-9. doi: 10.1007/s10903-009-9264-5. PubMed PMID: 19484492.



 Telephone: (03) 8699 0519
Fax: (03) 8699 0400