Teaching methods articles

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Brouwers M et al. Assessing patient-centred communication in teaching: a systematic review of instruments. Med Educ. 2017 Nov;51(11):1103-1117. doi: 10.1111/medu.13375. Epub 2017 Aug 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 28762538; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5655924.

Hays RB, Morgan S. Australian and overseas models of general practice training. Med J Aust. 2011 Jun 6;194(11):S63-4. PubMed PMID: 21644855.

Willcock SM, Coote W. The Australian General Practice Training program--reflections on the past decade. Med J Aust. 2011 Jun 6;194(11):S55-8. PubMed PMID: 21644853.

Morgan S. A balancing act--the role of the general practice trainer. Aust Fam Physician. 2005 Dec;34 Suppl 1:19-22. PubMed PMID: 16369676.

Wearne S, Giles S, Hope A. Barriers and enablers for implementing general practice training. Aust Fam Physician. 2004 Mar;33(3):182-4. PubMed PMID: 15054987.

LaChausse RG, Clark KR, Chapple S. Beyond teacher training: the critical role of professional development in maintaining curriculum fidelity. J Adolesc Health. 2014 Mar;54(3 Suppl):S53-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.12.029. PubMed PMID: 24560077.

Ingham G, Fry J. A blended supervision model in Australian general practice training. Aust Fam Physician. 2016 May;45(5):343-6. PubMed PMID: 27166474.

Gude T, Grimstad H, Holen A, Anvik T, Baerheim A, Fasmer OB, Hjortdahl P, Vaglum P. Can we rely on simulated patients' satisfaction with their consultation for assessing medical students' communication skills? A cross-sectional study. BMC Med Educ. 2015 Dec 18;15:225. doi: 10.1186/s12909-015-0508-x. PubMed PMID: 26687201; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4684920.

Ross S, Poth CN, Donoff M, Humphries P, Steiner I, Schipper S, Janke F, Nichols D. Competency-based achievement system: using formative feedback to teach and assess family medicine residents' skills. Can Fam Physician. 2011 Sep;57(9):e323-30. PubMed PMID: 21918129; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3173440.

Scott SM, Schifferdecker KE, Anthony D, Chao J, Chessman AW, Margo K, Seagrave M, Leong SL. Contemporary teaching strategies of exemplary community preceptors--is technology helping? Fam Med. 2014 Nov-Dec;46(10):776-82. PubMed PMID: 25646828.

Redwood-Campbell L, Pakes B, Rouleau K, MacDonald CJ, Arya N, Purkey E, Schultz K, Dhatt R, Wilson B, Hadi A, Pottie K. Developing a curriculum framework for global health in family medicine: emerging principles, competencies, and educational approaches. BMC Med Educ. 2011 Jul 22;11:46. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-11-46. PubMed PMID: 21781319; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3163624.

Thom DH, Tirado MD, Woon TL, McBride MR. Development and evaluation of a cultural competency training curriculum. BMC Med Educ. 2006 Jul 26;6:38. PubMed PMID: 16872504; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1555583.

Jenkins L, Mash B, Derese A. Development of a portfolio of learning for postgraduate family medicine training in South Africa: a Delphi study. BMC Fam Pract. 2012 Mar 3;13:11. doi: 10.1186/1471-2296-13-11. PubMed PMID: 22385468; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3317832.

Haag M. et al. Digital Teaching and Digital Medicine: A national initiative is needed. GMS J Med Educ. 2018 Aug 15;35(3):Doc43. doi: 10.3205/zma001189. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 30186953; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6120157.

Gongora-Ortega J, Segovia-Bernal Y, Valdivia-Martinez Jde J, Galaviz-DeAnda JM, Prado-Aguilar CA. Educational interventions to improve the effectiveness in clinical competence of general practitioners: problem-based versus critical reading-based learning. BMC Med Educ. 2012 Jul 11;12:53. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-53. PubMed PMID: 22784406.

Gopalan C. Effect of flipped teaching on student performance and perceptions in an Introductory Physiology course. Adv Physiol Educ. 2019 Mar 1;43(1):28-33. doi: 10.1152/advan.00051.2018. PubMed PMID: 30540207.

Trumble SC. The evolution of general practice training in Australia. Med J Aust. 2011 Jun 6;194(11):S59-62. PubMed PMID: 21644854.

Wijk H et al. Factors influencing effectiveness in postgraduate medical education - a qualitative study of experiences of the responsible clinical consultants. BMC Med Educ. 2019 Jan 3;19(1):3. doi: 10.1186/s12909-018-1433-6. PubMed PMID: 30606174; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6318888.

Pelgrim EA, Kramer AW, Mokkink HG, van der Vleuten CP. Factors influencing trainers' feedback-giving behavior: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Med Educ. 2014 Apr 1;14:65. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-14-65. PubMed PMID: 24690387; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4230419.

Roberts RG, Hunt VR, Kulie TI, Schmidt W, Schirmer JM, Villanueva T, Wilson CR. Family medicine training--the international experience. Med J Aust. 2011 Jun 6;194(11):S84-7. PubMed PMID: 21644860.

Miloslavsky EM, McSparron JI, Degnan KO, Huang GC, Pillinger MH, Puig A, Bolster MB. The Fellow as Clinical Teacher Curriculum: Enhancing Teaching in the Setting of Consultation. J Grad Med Educ. 2015 Jun;7(2):281-2. doi: 10.4300/JGME-D-14-00693.1. PubMed PMID: 26221456; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4512811.

Moraros J, Islam A, Yu S, Banow R, Schindelka B. Flipping for success: evaluating the effectiveness of a novel teaching approach in a graduate level setting. BMC Med Educ. 2015 Feb 28;15:27. doi: 10.1186/s12909-015-0317-2. PubMed PMID: 25884508; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4363198.

Emery JD, Skinner LP, Morgan S, Guest BJ, Vickery AW. Future models of general practice training in Australia. Med J Aust. 2011 Jun 6;194(11):S97-100. PubMed PMID: 21644863.

Kidd MR, Beilby JJ, Farmer EA, Jackson CL, Trumble SC. General practice education and training: past experiences, current issues and future challenges. Med J Aust. 2011 Jun 6;194(11):S53-4. PubMed PMID: 21644852.

Sturmberg J, Heard S. General practice education in Australia. Current issues. Aust Fam Physician. 2004 May;33(5):353-5. Review. PubMed PMID: 15227866.

Kleinitz A, Campbell D, Walters L. General practice registrar perceptions on training medical students. Aust Fam Physician. 2014 Jan-Feb;43(1):64-7. PubMed PMID: 24563898.

Ingham G, O'Meara P, Fry J, Crothers N. GP supervisors--an investigation into their motivations and teaching activities. Aust Fam Physician. 2014 Nov;43(11):808-12. PubMed PMID: 25393471.

Seki M, Otaki J, Breugelmans R, Komoda T, Nagata-Kobayashi S, Akaishi Y, Hiramoto J, Ohno I, Harada Y, Hirayama Y, Izumi M. How do case presentation teaching methods affect learning outcomes?--SNAPPS and the One-Minute preceptor. BMC Med Educ. 2016 Jan 13;16:12. doi: 10.1186/s12909-016-0531-6. PubMed PMID: 26762292; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4712551.

Sleight DA, Reznich CB. Implementation of curriculum by family medicine fellows: what factors help and what factors hinder?Fam Med. 2006 Apr;38(4):270-4. PubMed PMID: 16586174.

Kadivar H. The importance of mentorship for success in family medicine. Ann Fam Med. 2010 Jul-Aug;8(4):374-5. doi: 10.1370/afm.1155. PubMed PMID: 20644197; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2906539.

Lee SS, Hooi SC, Pan T, Fong CHA, Samarasekera DD. Improving a newly adapted teaching and learning approach: Collaborative Learning Cases using an action research. Korean J Med Educ. 2018 Dec;30(4):295-308. doi: 10.3946/kjme.2018.104. Epub 2018 Dec 1. PubMed PMID: 30522258; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6288614.

MacCarthy D, Kallstrom L, Kadlec H, Hollander M. Improving primary care in British Columbia, Canada: evaluation of a peer-to-peer continuing education program for family physicians. BMC Med Educ. 2012 Nov 9;12:110. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-110. PubMed PMID: 23140230; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3508962.

Dielissen PW, Bottema BJ, Verdonk P, Lagro-Janssen TL. Incorporating and evaluating an integrated gender-specific medicine curriculum: a survey study in Dutch GP training. BMC Med Educ. 2009 Sep 8;9:58. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-9-58. PubMed PMID: 19737396; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2746188.

Hwang JE et al. Individual class evaluation and effective teaching characteristics in integrated curricula. BMC Med Educ. 2017 Dec 12;17(1):252. doi: 10.1186/s12909-017-1097-7. PubMed PMID: 29233131; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5728067.

Laurence CO, Black LE, Cheah C, Karnon J. Is different better?: models of teaching and their influence on the net financial outcome for general practice teaching posts. BMC Med Educ. 2011 Jul 12;11:45. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-11-45. PubMed PMID: 21749692; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3146948.

Margolis SA, Davies LM, Ypinazar V. Isolated rural general practice as the focus for teaching core clinical rotations to pre-registration medical students. BMC Med Educ. 2005 Jun 27;5(1):22. PubMed PMID: 15982418; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1180439.

Clearihan L, McGarry H, Cheng M, Bratuskins P, Rowe M. Linking the RACGP curriculum to vocational education. Aust Fam Physician. 2010 Nov;39(11):869-74. PubMed PMID: 21301663.

Dannaway J, Ng H, Schoo A. Literature review of teaching skills programs for junior medical officers. Int J Med Educ. 2016 Jan 31;7:25-31. doi: 10.5116/ijme.5685.14da. Review. PubMed PMID: 26826798; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4733566.

Desrosiers É. Mastering teaching as a resident: Easier done than said. Can Fam Physician. 2015 Jul;61(7):e344-6, 642-4. English, French. PubMed PMID: 26175383; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4501626.

Kligler B, Lebensohn P, Koithan M, Schneider C, Rakel D, Cook P, Kohatsu W, Maizes V. Measuring the "whole system" outcomes of an educational innovation: experience from the integrative family medicine program. Fam Med. 2009 May;41(5):342-9. PubMed PMID: 19418283.

Triana AC, Olson MM, Trevino DB. A new paradigm for teaching behavior change: implications for residency training in family medicine and psychiatry. BMC Med Educ. 2012 Aug 3;12:64. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-64. PubMed PMID: 22863077; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3476994.

Pichlhöfer O, Tönies H, Spiegel W, Wilhelm-Mitteräcker A, Maier M. Patient and preceptor attitudes towards teaching medical students in General Practice. BMC Med Educ. 2013 Jun 7;13:83. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-13-83. PubMed PMID: 23758778; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3681639.

Engels D, Kraus E, Obirei B, Dethleffsen K. Peer teaching beyond the formal medical curriculum. Adv Physiol Educ. 2018 Sep 1;42(3):439-448. doi: 10.1152/advan.00188.2017. PubMed PMID: 29972066.

Launer J. Practice, supervision, consultancy and appraisal: a continuum of learning. Br J Gen Pract. 2003 Aug;53(493):662-5. PubMed PMID: 14601347; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1314685.

Katz-Sidlow RJ, Baer TG, Gershel JC. Providing rapid feedback to residents on their teaching skills: an educational strategy for contemporary trainees. Int J Med Educ. 2016 Mar 20;7:83-6. doi: 10.5116/ijme.56dc.908a. PubMed PMID: 26995390; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4800021.

Dybowski C, Kriston L, Harendza S. Psychometric properties of the newly developed Physician Teaching Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PTSQ). BMC Med Educ. 2016 Sep 22;16(1):247. PubMed PMID: 27658464; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5034456.

Berman NB et al. The Role for Virtual Patients in the Future of Medical Education. Acad Med. 2016 Sep;91(9):1217-22. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001146. PubMed PMID: 26959224.

Lawson S, Reid J, Morrow M, Gardiner K. Simulation-based Education and Human Factors Training in Postgraduate Medical Education: A Northern Ireland Perspective. Ulster Med J. 2018 Oct;87(3):163-167. Epub 2018 Oct 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 30559538; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6169420.

Gorbanev I et al. A systematic review of serious games in medical education: quality of evidence and pedagogical strategy. Med Educ Online. 2018 Dec;23(1):1438718. doi: 10.1080/10872981.2018.1438718. Review. PubMed PMID: 29457760; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5827764

Thomson JS, Anderson KJ, Mara PR, Stevenson AD. Supervision--growing and building a sustainable general practice supervisor system. Med J Aust. 2011 Jun 6;194(11):S101-4. PubMed PMID: 21644851.

Oliveira KRE, Trovo MM, Risso ACMDCR, Braga EM. The teaching approach on communicative skills in different teaching methodologies. Rev Bras Enferm. 2018 Sep-Oct;71(5):2447-2453. doi: 10.1590/0034-7167-2017-0728. English, Portuguese. PubMed PMID: 30304175.

Schattner A. Teaching clinical medicine: the key principals. QJM. 2015 Jun;108(6):435-42. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcv022. Epub 2015 Jan 30. PubMed PMID: 25636345.

Hudson J, Ratnapalan S. Teaching clinical skills with patient resources. Can Fam Physician. 2014 Jul;60(7):674-7, e372-5. English, French. PubMed PMID: 25022643; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4096270.

Lee AL, Mader EM, Morley CP. Teaching cross-cultural communication skills online: a multi-method evaluation. Fam Med. 2015 Apr;47(4):302-8. PubMed PMID: 25853602.

Grinzi P. Teaching and learning in general practice. Aust Fam Physician. 2004 Sep;33(9):677. PubMed PMID: 15487352.

Heaton CJ. Teaching for the future of family medicine. Fam Med. 2006 Jul-Aug;38(7):466-8. PubMed PMID: 16823668.

Fakhouri Filho SA, Feijó LP, Augusto KL, Nunes MDPT. Teaching skills for medical residents: are these important? A narrative review of the literature. Sao Paulo Med J. 2018 Nov-Dec;136(6):571-578. doi: 10.1590/1516-3180.2018.0147060818. Review. PubMed PMID: 30892488.

Steinhäuser J, Ledig T, Szecsenyi J, Eicher C, Engeser P, Roos M, Bungartz J, Joos S. Train the Trainer for general practice trainer - a report of the pilot within the programme Verbundweiterbildung plus. GMS Z Med Ausbild. 2012;29(3):Doc43. doi: 10.3205/zma000813. Epub 2012 May 15. PubMed PMID: 22737198; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3374139.

Dyer E, Swartzlander BJ, Gugliucci MR. Using virtual reality in medical education to teach empathy. J Med Libr Assoc. 2018 Oct;106(4):498-500. doi: 10.5195/jmla.2018.518. Epub 2018 Oct 1. PubMed PMID: 30271295; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6148621.

Dick ML, King DB, Mitchell GK, Kelly GD, Buckley JF, Garside SJ. Vertical Integration in Teaching And Learning (VITAL): an approach to medical education in general practice. Med J Aust. 2007 Jul 16;187(2):133-5. PubMed PMID: 17635102.

Stocks NP, Frank O, Linn AM, Anderson K, Meertens S. Vertical integration of teaching in Australian general practice--a survey of regional training providers. Med J Aust. 2011 Jun 6;194(11):S75-8. PubMed PMID: 21644858.

Anderson K, Thomson J. Vertical integration - Reducing the load on GP teachers. Aust Fam Physician. 2009 Nov;38(11):907-10. Review. PubMed PMID: 19893839.

Goldie J, Dowie A, Goldie A, Cotton P, Morrison J. What makes a good clinical student and teacher? An exploratory study.BMC Med Educ. 2015 Mar 10;15:40. doi: 10.1186/s12909-015-0314-5. PubMed PMID: 25889447; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4358722.

Benè KL, Bergus G. When learners become teachers: a review of peer teaching in medical student education. Fam Med. 2014 Nov-Dec;46(10):783-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 25646829.

Easton G, Stratford-Martin J, Atherton H. An appraisal of the literature on teaching physical examination skills. Educ Prim Care. 2012 Jul;23(4):246-54. Review. PubMed PMID: 22925956.

Pettit JE, Axelson RD, Ferguson KJ, Rosenbaum ME. Assessing effective teaching: what medical students value when developing evaluation instruments. Acad Med. 2015 Jan;90(1):94-9. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000447. PubMed PMID: 25099242.

Ratelle JT et al. Associations between teaching effectiveness and participant self-reflection in continuing medical education. Med Teach. 2017 Jul;39(7):697-703. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2017.1301655. Epub 2017 Mar 16. PubMed PMID: 28301975.

Merriman H, McCall J, Lapwood S. Assuring the quality of GP appraisal: a simple method for GP appraiser development. Educ Prim Care. 2009 Jan;20(1):44-51. PubMed PMID: 19618652.

Blane DN, Hesselgreaves H, McLean G, Lough M, Watt GC. Attitudes towards health inequalities amongst GP trainers in Glasgow, and their ideas for changes in training. Educ Prim Care. 2013 Feb;24(2):97-104. PubMed PMID: 23498576.

Jochemsen-van der Leeuw HG, van Dijk N, van Etten-Jamaludin FS, Wieringa-de Waard M. The attributes of the clinical trainer as a role model: a systematic review. Acad Med. 2013 Jan;88(1):26-34. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e318276d070. Review. PubMed PMID: 23165277.

Munk M, Kjaer NK. The benefits of educational release of hospital-based general practice specialist training registrars into general practice. Educ Prim Care. 2010 Jul;21(4):243-7. PubMed PMID: 20836928.

Iyasere et al. Beyond Continuing Medical Education: Clinical Coaching as a Tool for Ongoing Professional Development. Acad Med. 2016 Dec;91(12):1647-1650. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001131. PubMed PMID: 26910898.

Te Pas E, Meinema JG, Visser MR, van Dijk N. Blended learning in CME: the perception of GP trainers. Educ Prim Care. 2016 May;27(3):217-24. doi: 10.1080/14739879.2016.1163025. PubMed PMID: 27012724.

Ferguson PC et al. Changing the culture of medical training: An important step toward the implementation of competency-based medical education. Med Teach. 2017 Jun;39(6):599-602. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2017.1315079. PubMed PMID: 28598749.

Holmboe ES et al. A call to action: The controversy of and rationale for competency-based medical education. Med Teach. 2017 Jun;39(6):574-581. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2017.1315067. PubMed PMID: 28598742.

Patel R, Sandars J, Carr S. Clinical diagnostic decision-making in real life contexts: A trans-theoretical approach for teaching: AMEE Guide No. 95. Med Teach. 2015 Mar;37(3):211-27. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.975195. Epub 2014 Nov 13. PubMed PMID: 25391895.

Jackson L. A collaborative approach to peer teaching. Med Teach. 2019 Feb;41(2):239-240. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2018.1506098. Epub 2018 Oct 16. PubMed PMID: 30326761.

De Leng B, Gijlers H. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction? Med Teach. 2015 May;37(5):450-6. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.956053. Epub 2014 Sep 5. PubMed PMID: 25189086.

Cook DA, Hamstra SJ, Brydges R, Zendejas B, Szostek JH, Wang AT, Erwin PJ, Hatala R. Comparative effectiveness of instructional design features in simulation-based education: systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Teach. 2013;35(1):e867-98. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2012.714886. Epub 2012 Sep 3. Review. PubMed PMID: 22938677.

Boyd VA et al. Competency-based medical education: the discourse of infallibility. Med Educ. 2018 Jan;52(1):45-57. doi: 10.1111/medu.13467. Epub 2017 Oct 27. PubMed PMID: 29076231.

Caccia N, Nakajima A, Kent N. Competency-based medical education: the wave of the future. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2015 Apr;37(4):349-53. PubMed PMID: 26001689.

Schichtel M. A conceptual description of potential scenarios of e-mentoring in GP specialist training. Educ Prim Care. 2009 Sep;20(5):360-4. PubMed PMID: 19849902.

Shepherd I, Burton T. A conceptual framework for simulation in healthcare education - The need. Nurse Educ Today. 2019 May;76:21-25. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2019.01.033. Epub 2019 Feb 5. PubMed PMID: 30739876.

Ross M. Conceptions of teaching: an illustrated review. Clin Teach. 2017 Feb;14(1):8-14. doi: 10.1111/tct.12622. Review. PubMed PMID: 28100044.

Cantillon P, de Grave W. Conceptualising GP teachers' knowledge: a pedagogical content knowledge perspective.Educ Prim Care. 2012 May;23(3):178-85. PubMed PMID: 22762876.

Côté L, Bordage G. Content and conceptual frameworks of preceptor feedback related to residents' educational needs. Acad Med. 2012 Sep;87(9):1274-81. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3182623073. PubMed PMID: 22836843.

Taylor C, Turnbull C, Sparrow N. Continuing professional development for general practitioners in the first five years after training. Educ Prim Care. 2010 Mar;21(2):76-8. PubMed PMID: 20359384.

Shi CR, Rana J, Burgin S. Co-teaching: applications in medical education. Clin Teach. 2018 Aug;15(4):341-343. doi: 10.1111/tct.12709. Epub 2017 Oct 3. PubMed PMID: 28971589.

Sidhu NS, Edwards M. Deliberate teaching tools for clinical teaching encounters: A critical scoping review and thematic analysis to establish definitional clarity. Med Teach. 2018 Apr 27:1-15. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2018.1463087. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29703088.

Taylor JS, Hunter N, Basaviah P, Mintz M. Developing a national collaborative of medical educators who lead clinical skills courses. Teach Learn Med. 2012;24(4):361-4. doi: 10.1080/10401334.2012.730452. PubMed PMID: 23036005.

Alden E. Educational scholarships: an innovative addition to GP training.Educ Prim Care. 2013 Jan;24(1):83-5. PubMed PMID: 23451361.

Molloy E, Bearman M. Embracing the tension between vulnerability and credibility: 'intellectual candour' in health professions education. Med Educ. 2019 Jan;53(1):32-41. doi: 10.1111/medu.13649. Epub 2018 Sep 7. PubMed PMID: 30192024.

Taylor C, Turnbull C, Sparrow N. Establishing the continuing professional development needs of general practitioners in their first five years after training. Educ Prim Care. 2010 Sep;21(5):316-9. PubMed PMID: 20868547.

van de Mortel TF, Trigger R, Ahern C, Bird J. Evaluating a community-engaged vertically integrated teaching and learning pilot project. Educ Prim Care. 2013 May;24(3):165-72. PubMed PMID: 23676871.

Griffin R, Tavabie A, McLean I. An evaluation of the experience of integrated GP training placements in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex Deanery. Educ Prim Care. 2011 Mar;22(2):74-82. PubMed PMID: 21439138.

Bircher J. Extending GP training and the development of leadership skills: the experience of the North Western Deanery pilot. Educ Prim Care. 2013 Jan;24(1):57-60. PubMed PMID: 23356765.

Dowling S, Rouse M, Thompson W, Sibbett C, Farrell J. Extension of general practice training from three to four years: experiences of a vocational training programme in Southern Ireland. Educ Prim Care. 2009 May;20(3):167-72. PubMed PMID: 19583902.

Wittich CM et al. Flipped Classrooms in Graduate Medical Education: A National Survey of Residency Program Directors. Acad Med. 2018 Mar;93(3):471-477. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001776. PubMed PMID: 28640030.

Wiener-Ogilvie S, Begg D. Formative assessment of GP trainees' clinical skills. Educ Prim Care. 2012 Mar;23(2):101-6. PubMed PMID: 22449465.

Zolle O, Rickenbach M, Gorrod E. The formative impact of general practice appraisals: a post-appraisal questionnaire survey. Educ Prim Care. 2009 Nov;20(6):445-54. PubMed PMID: 20132640.

Rushforth B, Kirby J, Pearson D. General practice registrars as teachers: a review of the literature. Educ Prim Care. 2010 Jul;21(4):221-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 20836925.

Wearne S, Dornan T, Teunissen PW, Skinner T. General practitioners as supervisors in postgraduate clinical education: an integrative review. Med Educ. 2012 Dec;46(12):1161-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04348.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 23171258.

Halestrap P, Leeder D. GP registrars as teachers: a survey of their level of involvement and training. Educ Prim Care. 2011 Sep;22(5):310-3. PubMed PMID: 22005488.

Thijs GA. GP's consult and health behaviour change project. Developing a programme to train GPs in communication skills to achieve lifestyle improvements.Patient Educ Couns. 2007 Aug;67(3):267-71. Epub 2007 Jun 21. PubMed PMID: 17590302.

Cantillon P, de Grave W. GP teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a tutorial: the preparation and delivery compared. Educ Prim Care. 2012 May;23(3):169-77. PubMed PMID: 22762875.

Morison J, Main P, Irish B, Curtis A. GPs' experiences of the Returner (Induction and Refreshment) scheme in Severn: a qualitative study. Educ Prim Care. 2012 Jul;23(4):255-62. PubMed PMID: 22925957.

Rigby C. Half-day release in vocational GP training: a case study of redesign based on qualitative evaluation. Educ Prim Care. 2010 Nov;21(6):354-9. PubMed PMID: 21144173.

Lyon-Maris J, Scallan S. High fidelity trainee simulation to improve trainer performance. Clin Teach. 2012 Feb;9(1):18-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-498X.2011.00504.x. PubMed PMID: 22225887.

Maggio LA et al. Honoring Thy Self in the Transition to Online Teaching. Acad Med. 2018 May 8. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002285. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29742615.

Russell D, Etherington C, Hawthorne K. How can simulated patients' experiences suggest ways to improve candidate performance in the MRCGP clinical assessments? Educ Prim Care. 2012 Nov;23(6):391-8. PubMed PMID: 23232130.

Saucier D, Paré L, Côté L, Baillargeon L. How core competencies are taught during clinical supervision: participatory action research in family medicine. Med Educ. 2012 Dec;46(12):1194-205. doi: 10.1111/medu.12017. PubMed PMID: 23171262.

Young ME, Dory V, Lubarsky S, Thomas A. How Different Theories of Clinical Reasoning Influence Teaching and Assessment. Acad Med. 2018 May 29. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002303. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29847325.

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Sargeant J, MacLeod T, Murray A. An interprofessional approach to teaching communication skills. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2011 Fall;31(4):265-7. doi: 10.1002/chp.20139. PubMed PMID: 22189990.

Gozu A, Windish DM, Knight AM, Thomas PA, Kolodner K, Bass EB, Sisson SD, Kern DE. Long-term follow-up of a 10-month programme in curriculum development for medical educators: a cohort study. Med Educ. 2008 Jul;42(7):684-92. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03090.x. Epub 2008 May 23. PubMed PMID: 18507767.

Ilic D, Maloney S. Methods of teaching medical trainees evidence-based medicine: a systematic review. Med Educ. 2014 Feb;48(2):124-35. doi: 10.1111/medu.12288. Review. PubMed PMID: 24528395.

Shershneva MB, Carnes M, Bakken LL. A model of teaching-learning transactions in generalist-specialist consultations. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2006 Summer;26(3):222-9. PubMed PMID: 16986153.

Brand MW, Ekambaram V, Tucker P, Aggarwal R. Residents as teachers: psychiatry and family medicine residents' self-assessment of teaching knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Acad Psychiatry. 2013 Sep;37(5):313-6. doi: 10.1176/appi.ap.12050086. PubMed PMID: 24026368.

Lindfield D, Bradley V, Whitelaw B. Teaching and developing referral skills for new doctors. Med Educ. 2015 Nov;49(11):1152-3. doi: 10.1111/medu.12865. PubMed PMID: 26494084.

Miloslavsky EM, McSparron JI, Richards JB, Puig A, Sullivan AM. Teaching during consultation: factors affecting the resident-fellow teaching interaction. Med Educ. 2015 Jul;49(7):717-30. doi: 10.1111/medu.12760. PubMed PMID: 26077219.

Walters L, Hirsh D. Teaching in general practice: considering conceptual lenses. Med Educ. 2011 Jul;45(7):660-2. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04008.x. PubMed PMID: 21649697.

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Murrihy RC, Byrne MK, Gonsalvez CJ. Testing an empirically derived mental health training model featuring small groups, distributed practice and patient discussion. Med Educ. 2009 Feb;43(2):140-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03256.x. PubMed PMID: 19161484.

Larsen K, Perkins D. Training doctors in general practices: a review of the literature. Aust J Rural Health. 2006 Oct;14(5):173-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 17032291.

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Dolmans DH, Wolfhagen IH, Van Merriënboer JJ. Twelve tips for implementing whole-task curricula: how to make it work. Med Teach. 2013 Oct;35(10):801-5. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2013.799640. Epub 2013 Jun 19. PubMed PMID: 23782045.

Boillat M, Bethune C, Ohle E, Razack S, Steinert Y. Twelve tips for using the objective structured teaching exercise for faculty development. Med Teach. 2012;34(4):269-73. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2011.599891. PubMed PMID: 22455695.

Kind T, Patel PD, Lie D, Chretien KC. Twelve tips for using social media as a medical educator. Med Teach. 2014 Apr;36(4):284-90. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2013.852167. Epub 2013 Nov 21. PubMed PMID: 24261897.

Cohen LG, Sherif YA. Twelve tips on teaching and learning humanism in medical education. Med Teach. 2014 Aug;36(8):680-4. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.916779. Epub 2014 Jun 26. PubMed PMID: 24965585.

Warren AE, Allen VM, Bergin F, Hazelton L, Alexiadis-Brown P, Lightfoot K, McSweeney J, Singleton JF, Sargeant J, Mann K. Understanding, teaching and assessing the elements of the CanMEDS Professional Role: canadian program directors' views.Med Teach. 2014 May;36(5):390-402. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.890281. Epub 2014 Mar 7. PubMed PMID: 24601891.

Allaire AS, Labrecque M, Giguere A, Gagnon MP, Légaré F. What motivates family physicians to participate in training programs in shared decision making? J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2012 Spring;32(2):98-107. doi: 10.1002/chp.21132. PubMed PMID: 22733637.

Klein D, Allan GM, Manca D, Sargeant J, Barnett C. Who is driving continuing medical education for family medicine? J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2009 Winter;29(1):63-7. doi: 10.1002/chp.20008. PubMed PMID: 19288556.



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