Assessment articles


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Ogunbanjo GA. Adapting mini-CEX scoring to improve inter-rater reliability. Med Educ. 2009 May;43(5):484-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03327.x. PubMed PMID: 19437590.

Hawkins R, MacKrell Gaglione M, LaDuca T, Leung C, Sample L, Gliva-McConvey G, Liston W, De Champlain A, Ciccone A. Assessment of patient management skills and clinical skills of practising doctors using computer-based case simulations and standardised patients. Med Educ. 2004 Sep;38(9):958-68. PubMed PMID: 15327677.

Liew SC, Dutta S, Sidhu JK, De-Alwis R, Chen N, Sow CF, Barua A. Assessors for communication skills: SPs or healthcare professionals? Med Teach. 2014 Jul;36(7):626-31. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.899689. Epub 2014 May 2. PubMed PMID: 24787534.

Dielissen P, Bottema B, Verdonk P, Lagro-Janssen T. Attention to gender in communication skills assessment instruments in medical education: a review. Med Educ. 2011 Mar;45(3):239-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03876.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 21299599.

Barrett A et al. A BEME (Best Evidence in Medical Education) review of the use ofworkplace-based assessment in identifying and remediating underperformance among postgraduate medical trainees: BEME Guide No. 43. Med Teach. 2016 Dec;38(12):1188-1198. Epub 2016 Sep 14. Review. PubMed PMID: 27626710.

Laidlaw A, Hart J. Communication skills: an essential component of medical curricula. Part I: Assessment of clinical communication: AMEE Guide No. 51. Med Teach. 2011;33(1):6-8. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2011.531170. Review. PubMed PMID: 21182378.

Van Nuland M, Van Den Noortgate W, Degryse J, Goedhuys J. Comparison of two instruments for assessing communication skills in a general practice objective structured clinical examination. Med Educ. 2007 Jul;41(7):676-83. PubMed PMID: 17614888.

Patel M, Agius S. Cross-cultural comparisons of assessment of clinical performance. Med Educ. 2017 Apr;51(4):348-350. doi: 10.1111/medu.13262. PubMed PMID: 28299843.

Sargeant J, Mann K, van der Vleuten C, Metsemakers J. "Directed" self-assessment: practice and feedback within a social context. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2008 Winter;28(1):47-54. doi: 10.1002/chp.155. Review. PubMed PMID: 18366127.

Wenghofer EF, Way D, Moxam RS, Wu H, Faulkner D, Klass DJ. Effectiveness of an enhanced peer assessment program: introducing education into regulatory assessment. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2006 Summer;26(3):199-208. PubMed PMID: 16986145.

Colthart I, Bagnall G, Evans A, Allbutt H, Haig A, Illing J, McKinstry B. The effectiveness of self-assessment on the identification of learner needs, learner activity, and impact on clinical practice: BEME Guide no. 10. Med Teach. 2008;30(2):124-45. doi: 10.1080/01421590701881699. Review. PubMed PMID: 18464136.

Munro N, Denney ML, Rughani A, Foulkes J, Wilson A, Tate P; Panel of Examiners, MRCGP Examination. Ensuring reliability in UK written tests of general practice: the MRCGP examination 1998-2003. Med Teach. 2005 Jan;27(1):37-45. PubMed PMID: 16147769.

Kiger J. Evaluating evaluations: an ouroboros for medical education. Med Educ. 2017 Feb;51(2):131-133. doi: 10.1111/medu.13256. PubMed PMID: 28084050.

Wilby KJ et al. Exploring the influence of cultural orientations on assessment of communication behaviours during patient-practitioner interactions. BMC Med Educ. 2017 Mar 21;17(1):61. doi: 10.1186/s12909-017-0899-y. PubMed PMID: 28327124; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5361732.

Osborne AJ, Hawkins SC, Pournaras DJ, Chandratilake M, Welbourn R. An evaluation of operative self-assessment by UK postgraduate trainees. Med Teach. 2014 Jan;36(1):32-7. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2013.836268. Epub 2013 Oct 23. PubMed PMID: 24152186.

Sarzynski E, Wagner D, Noel M. Expanding the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to teach documentation, coding and billing. Med Teach. 2013 Aug;35(8):699-700. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2013.786174. Epub 2013 Apr 22. PubMed PMID: 23899312.

Sargeant J, Mann K, Ferrier S. Exploring family physicians' reactions to multisource feedback: perceptions of credibility and usefulness. Med Educ. 2005 May;39(5):497-504. PubMed PMID: 15842684.

Schuwirth LW, van der Vleuten CP. General overview of the theories used in assessment: AMEE Guide No. 57. Med Teach. 2011;33(10):783-97. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2011.611022. Review. PubMed PMID: 21942477.

Middlemass J, Siriwardena AN. General practitioners, revalidation and appraisal: a cross sectional survey of attitudes, beliefs and concerns in Lincolnshire. Med Educ. 2003 Sep;37(9):778-85. PubMed PMID: 12950940.

Mackillop L, Parker-Swift J, Crossley J. Getting the questions right: non-compound questions are more reliable than compound questions on matched multi-source feedback instruments. Med Educ. 2011 Aug;45(8):843-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.03996.x. PubMed PMID: 21752081.

Lurie SJ. History and practice of competency-based assessment. Med Educ. 2012 Jan;46(1):49-57. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04142.x. PubMed PMID: 22150196.

Sargeant J, Macleod T, Sinclair D, Power M. How do physicians assess their family physician colleagues' performance?: creating a rubric to inform assessment and feedback. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2011 Spring;31(2):87-94. doi: 10.1002/chp.20111. PubMed PMID: 21671274.

McKinley DW, Norcini JJ. How to set standards on performance-based examinations: AMEE Guide No. 85. Med Teach. 2014 Feb;36(2):97-110. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2013.853119. Epub 2013 Nov 20. PubMed PMID: 24256050.

Wilkinson JR, Crossley JG, Wragg A, Mills P, Cowan G, Wade W. Implementing workplace-based assessment across the medical specialties in the United Kingdom. Med Educ. 2008 Apr;42(4):364-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03010.x. PubMed PMID: 18338989.

Hrynchak P, Takahashi SG, Nayer M. Key-feature questions for assessment of clinical reasoning: a literature review. Med Educ. 2014 Sep;48(9):870-83. doi: 10.1111/medu.12509. Review. PubMed PMID: 25113114.

Braend AM, Gran SF, Frich JC, Lindbaek M. Medical students' clinical performance in general practice - Triangulating assessments from patients, teachers and students. Med Teach. 2010;32(4):333-9. doi: 10.3109/01421590903516866. PubMed PMID: 20353331.

Montagne S, Rogausch A, Gemperli A, Berendonk C, Jucker-Kupper P, Beyeler C. The mini-clinical evaluation exercise during medical clerkships: are learning needs and learning goals aligned? Med Educ. 2014 Oct;48(10):1008-19. doi: 10.1111/medu.12513. PubMed PMID: 25200021.

Khan KZ, Ramachandran S, Gaunt K, Pushkar P. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE): AMEE Guide No. 81. Part I: an historical and theoretical perspective. Med Teach. 2013 Sep;35(9):e1437-46. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2013.818634. PubMed PMID: 23968323.

Chan J, Humphrey-Murto S, Pugh DM, Su C, Wood T. The objective structured clinical examination: can physician-examiners participate from a distance? Med Educ. 2014 Apr;48(4):441-50. doi: 10.1111/medu.12326. PubMed PMID: 24606627.

Tai J, Adachi C. Peer assessment and professional behaviours: what should we be assessing, how, and why? Med Educ. 2017 Apr;51(4):346-347. doi: 10.1111/medu.13254. PubMed PMID: 28299845.

Farmer EA, Page G. A practical guide to assessing clinical decision-making skills using the key features approach. Med Educ. 2005 Dec;39(12):1188-94. PubMed PMID: 16313577.

Sargeant J, Bruce D, Campbell CM. Practicing physicians' needs for assessment and feedback as part of professional development. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2013 Fall;33 Suppl 1:S54-62. doi: 10.1002/chp.21202. PubMed PMID: 24347154.

Pelgrim EA, Kramer AW, Mokkink HG, van der Vleuten CP. The process of feedback in workplace-based assessment: organisation, delivery, continuity. Med Educ. 2012 Jun;46(6):604-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04266.x. PubMed PMID: 22626052.

van de Camp K, Vernooij-Dassen M, Grol R, Bottema B. Professionalism in general practice: development of an instrument to assess professional behaviour in general practitioner trainees. Med Educ. 2006 Jan;40(1):43-50. PubMed PMID: 16441322.

Pugh D, Touchie C, Wood TJ, Humphrey-Murto S. Progress testing: is there a role for the OSCE? Med Educ. 2014 Jun;48(6):623-31. doi: 10.1111/medu.12423. PubMed PMID: 24807438.

Basehore PM, Pomerantz SC, Gentile M. Reliability and benefits of medical student peers in rating complex clinical skills. Med Teach. 2014 May;36(5):409-14. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.889287. Epub 2014 Mar 6. PubMed PMID: 24597711.

Roberts C, Cromarty I, Crossley J, Jolly B. The reliability and validity of a matrix to assess the completed reflective personal development plans of general practitioners. Med Educ. 2006 Apr;40(4):363-70. PubMed PMID: 16573673.

Reinders ME, Blankenstein AH, van Marwijk HW, Knol DL, Ram P, van der Horst HE, de Vet HC, van der Vleuten CP. Reliability of consultation skills assessments using standardised versus real patients. Med Educ. 2011 Jun;45(6):578-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03917.x. PubMed PMID: 21564197.

Silver I, Campbell C, Marlow B, Sargeant J. Self-assessment and continuing professional development: the Canadian perspective. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2008 Winter;28(1):25-31. doi: 10.1002/chp.152. PubMed PMID: 18366121.

Hobma SO, Ram PM, Muijtjens AM, Grol RP, van der Vleuten CP. Setting a standard for performance assessment of doctor-patient communication in general practice. Med Educ. 2004 Dec;38(12):1244-52. PubMed PMID: 15566535.

Veloski J, Boex JR, Grasberger MJ, Evans A, Wolfson DB. Systematic review of the literature on assessment, feedback and physicians' clinical performance: BEME Guide No. 7. Med Teach. 2006 Mar;28(2):117-28. Review. PubMed PMID: 16707292.

Newble D. Techniques for measuring clinical competence: objective structured clinical examinations. Med Educ. 2004 Feb;38(2):199-203. PubMed PMID: 14871390.

Klein D, Staples J, Pittman C, Stepanko C. Using electronic clinical practice audits as needs assessment to produce effective continuing medical education programming. Med Teach. 2012;34(2):151-4. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2012.644826. PubMed PMID: 22288993.

Govaerts M, van der Vleuten CP. Validity in work-based assessment: expanding our horizons. Med Educ. 2013 Dec;47(12):1164-74. doi: 10.1111/medu.12289. PubMed PMID: 24206150.

Johnston JL, Lundy G, McCullough M, Gormley GJ. The view from over there: reframing the OSCE through the experience of standardised patient raters. Med Educ. 2013 Sep;47(9):899-909. doi: 10.1111/medu.12243. PubMed PMID: 23931539.

Roy M, Walker R, Blyth P, Wilkinson T. Virtual reality-based assessment of clinical reasoning ability. Med Educ. 2014 Nov;48(11):1123. doi: 10.1111/medu.12559. PubMed PMID: 25307661.

Waldmann UM, Gulich MS, Zeitler HP. Virtual patients for assessing medical students--important aspects when considering the introduction of a new assessment format. Med Teach. 2008 Feb;30(1):17-24. doi: 10.1080/01421590701758616. PubMed PMID: 18278646.

Cook DA, Zendejas B, Hamstra SJ, Hatala R, Brydges R. What counts as validity evidence? Examples and prevalence in a systematic review of simulation-based assessment. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2014 May;19(2):233-50. doi: 10.1007/s10459-013-9458-4. Epub 2013 May 2. Review. PubMed PMID: 23636643.

Bruce D. Workplace-based assessment as an educational tool: Guide Supplement 31.4 - review. Med Teach. 2010;32(6):524-5. doi: 10.3109/01421591003680636. PubMed PMID: 20515387.

Murphy DJ, Bruce D, Eva KW. Workplace-based assessment for general practitioners: using stakeholder perception to aid blueprinting of an assessment battery. Med Educ. 2008 Jan;42(1):96-103. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02952.x. PubMed PMID: 18181849.

Bergus G, Vogelgesang S, Tansey J, Franklin E, Feld R. Appraising and applying evidence about a diagnostic test during a performance-based assessment. BMC Med Educ. 2004 Oct 13;4:20. PubMed PMID: 15482600; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC526196.

Cömert M, Zill JM, Christalle E, Dirmaier J, Härter M, Scholl I. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE)--A Systematic Review of Rating Scales. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 31;11(3):e0152717. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152717. Review. PubMed PMID: 27031506; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4816391.

Curnock E, Bowie P, Pope L, McKay J. Barriers and attitudes influencing non-engagement in a peer feedback model to inform evidence for GP appraisal. BMC Med Educ. 2012 Mar 23;12:15. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-15. PubMed PMID: 22443714; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3338401.

Olde Bekkink M, Donders AR, Kooloos JG, de Waal RM, Ruiter DJ. Challenging students to formulate written questions: a randomized controlled trial to assess learning effects. BMC Med Educ. 2015 Mar 21;15:56. doi: 10.1186/s12909-015-0336-z. PubMed PMID: 25888863; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4404132.

Harrison CJ et al. Changing the culture of assessment: the dominance of the summative assessment paradigm. BMC Med Educ. 2017 Apr 28;17(1):73. doi: 10.1186/s12909-017-0912-5. PubMed PMID: 28454581; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5410042.

Kligler B, Koithan M, Maizes V, Hayes M, Schneider C, Lebensohn P, Hadley S. Competency-based evaluation tools for integrative medicine training in family medicine residency: a pilot study. BMC Med Educ. 2007 Apr 18;7:7. PubMed PMID: 17442108; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1855050.

Tartas M, Walkiewicz M, Budzinski W, Majkowicz M, Wójcikiewicz K, Zdun-Ryzewska A. The coping strategies during medical education predict style of success in medical career: a 10-year longitudinal study. BMC Med Educ. 2016 Jul 22;16:186. doi: 10.1186/s12909-016-0706-1. PubMed PMID: 27444777; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4957329.

Liao KC, Pu SJ, Liu MS, Yang CW, Kuo HP. Development and implementation of a mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (mini-CEX) program to assess the clinical competencies of internal medicine residents: from faculty development to curriculum evaluation. BMC Med Educ. 2013 Feb 26;13:31. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-13-31. PubMed PMID: 23442216; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3599226.

Terry R et al. Do coursework summative assessments predict clinical performance? A systematic review. BMC Med Educ. 2017 Feb 16;17(1):40. doi: 10.1186/s12909-017-0878-3. Review. PubMed PMID: 28209159; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5314623.

Kinsella P, Wood J. GP supervisors--their professional development and involvement in assessment. Aust Fam Physician. 2008 Jan-Feb;37(1-2):66-7. PubMed PMID: 18239757.

Jayaweera HK et al. The GP tests of competence assessment: which part best predicts fitness to practise decisions? BMC Med Educ. 2018 Jan 2;18(1):2. doi: 10.1186/s12909-017-1111-0. PubMed PMID: 29291735; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5748949.

Jones R, Rawlin M, Atkinson K, Radford J, Au L, Egglestone D. Lessons from the past--historical trends in the RACGP examination. Aust Fam Physician. 2009 Sep;38(9):708-10. PubMed PMID: 19893800.

Bhuiyan AK. Overseas trained doctors. How to prepare for a fellowship exam. Aust Fam Physician. 2004 Sep;33(9):746-7. PubMed PMID: 15487372.

Byrne A, Soskova T, Dawkins J, Coombes L. A pilot study of marking accuracy and mental workload as measures of OSCE examiner performance. BMC Med Educ. 2016 Jul 25;16:191. doi: 10.1186/s12909-016-0708-z. PubMed PMID: 27455964; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4960857.

Bok HG, Teunissen PW, Favier RP, Rietbroek NJ, Theyse LF, Brommer H, Haarhuis JC, van Beukelen P, van der Vleuten CP, Jaarsma DA. Programmatic assessment of competency-based workplace learning: when theory meets practice. BMC Med Educ. 2013 Sep 11;13:123. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-13-123. PubMed PMID: 24020944; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3851012.

Hift RJ. Should essays and other "open-ended"-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in clinical medicine? BMC Med Educ. 2014 Nov 28;14:249. doi: 10.1186/s12909-014-0249-2. Review. PubMed PMID: 25431359; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4275935.

Pelgrim EA, Kramer AW, Mokkink HG, Van der Vleuten CP. Quality of written narrative feedback and reflection in a modified mini-clinical evaluation exercise: an observational study. BMC Med Educ. 2012 Oct 18;12:97. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-97. PubMed PMID: 23075126; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3505168.

Hayward MF, Curran V, Curtis B, Schulz H, Murphy S. Reliability of the interprofessional collaborator assessment rubric (ICAR) in multi source feedback (MSF) with post-graduate medical residents. BMC Med Educ. 2014 Dec 31;14:1049. doi: 10.1186/s12909-014-0279-9. PubMed PMID: 25551678; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4318203.

Kickert R et al. The role of the assessment policy in the relation between learning and performance. Med Educ. 2018 Mar;52(3):324-335. doi: 10.1111/medu.13487. Epub 2017 Dec 11. PubMed PMID: 29230856; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5836921.

Saedon H, Salleh S, Balakrishnan A, Imray CH, Saedon M. The role of feedback in improving the effectiveness of workplace based assessments: a systematic review. BMC Med Educ. 2012 May 2;12:25. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-25. Review. PubMed PMID: 22551353; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3432628.

Oandasan I, Wong E, Saucier D, Donoff M, Iglar K, Schipper S. Triple C: linking curriculum and assessment. Can Fam Physician. 2012 Oct;58(10):1165-7, e608-10. English, French. PubMed PMID: 23064926; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3470516.

Olde Bekkink M, Donders AR, Kooloos JG, de Waal RM, Ruiter DJ. Uncovering students' misconceptions by assessment of their written questions. BMC Med Educ. 2016 Aug 24;16(1):221. doi: 10.1186/s12909-016-0739-5. PubMed PMID: 27558400; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4997739.

Wolcott MD et al. Using the multiple mini interview as an assessment strategy within the first year of a health professions curriculum. BMC Med Educ. 2018 May 3;18(1):92. doi: 10.1186/s12909-018-1203-5. PubMed PMID: 29724211; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5934879.

Govaerts MJ, Van de Wiel MW, Schuwirth LW, Van der Vleuten CP, Muijtjens AM. Workplace-based assessment: raters' performance theories and constructs. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2013 Aug;18(3):375-96. doi: 10.1007/s10459-012-9376-x. Epub 2012 May 17. PubMed PMID: 22592323; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3728456.

Tekian A, Hodges BD, Roberts TE, Schuwirth L, Norcini J. Assessing competencies using milestones along the way. Med Teach. 2015 Apr;37(4):399-402. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.993954. Epub 2014 Dec 19. PubMed PMID: 25523010.

Hays R. Assessing learning in primary care. Educ Prim Care. 2009 Jan;20(1):4-7. PubMed PMID: 19618644.

Rustecki L, Trafford P, Khan A, Burrows P. Assessing the communicative competence of EU general practitioners applying to work in London. Educ Prim Care. 2012 May;23(3):220-4. PubMed PMID: 22762884.

Dijkstra J, Latijnhouwers M, Norbart A, Tio RA. Assessing the "I" in group work assessment: State of the art and recommendations for practice. Med Teach. 2016 Jul;38(7):675-82. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2016.1170796. PubMed PMID: 27111741.

Guris RD. Assessment in Medical Education Focuses Too Narrowly on Test Scores. Acad Med. 2017 Jun;92(6):733-734. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001701. PubMed PMID: 28557925

Scarborough N, Jackson D, Rhodes N. The assessment afternoon: an innovative way of doing workplace-based assessments for GP registrars. Educ Prim Care. 2009 May;20(3):178-80. PubMed PMID: 19583904.

Maudsley RF. Assessment of international medical graduates and their integration into family practice: the Clinician Assessment for Practice Program.Acad Med. 2008 Mar;83(3):309-15. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e318163710f. PubMed PMID: 18316885.

Bowe CM, Armstrong E. Assessment for Systems Learning: A Holistic Assessment Framework to Support Decision Making Across the Medical Education Continuum. Acad Med. 2017 May;92(5):585-592. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001321. PubMed PMID: 27465232.

Gormley GJ, Johnston J, Thomson C, McGlade K. Awarding global grades in OSCEs: evaluation of a novel eLearning resource for OSCE examiners. Med Teach. 2012;34(7):587-9. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2012.682745. Epub 2012 May 28. PubMed PMID: 22632277.

Barrett A, Galvin R, Steinert Y, Scherpbier A, O'Shaughnessy A, Horgan M, Horsley T. A BEME (Best Evidence in Medical Education) review of the use of workplace-based assessment in identifying and remediating underperformance among postgraduate medical trainees: BEME Guide No. 43. Med Teach. 2016 Sep 14:1-11. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27626710.

Mugweni K, Kibble S, Conlon M. Benefits of appraisal as perceived by general practitioners. Educ Prim Care. 2011 Nov;22(6):393-8. PubMed PMID: 22413660.

Hoang NS, Lau JN. A Call for Mixed Methods in Competency-Based Medical Education: How We Can Prevent the Overfitting of Curriculum and Assessment. Acad Med. 2018 Mar 6. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002205. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29517532.

Burdick WP, Boulet JR, LeBlanc KE. Can We Increase the Value and Decrease the Cost of Clinical Skills Assessment? Acad Med. 2018 May;93(5):690-692. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001867. PubMed PMID: 28834846.

Harrison C, Wass V. The challenge of changing to an assessment for learning culture. Med Educ. 2016 Jul;50(7):704-6. doi: 10.1111/medu.13058. PubMed PMID: 27295472.

Gotzmann A et al. Cheating in OSCEs: The Impact of Simulated Security Breaches on OSCE Performance. Teach Learn Med. 2017 Jan-Mar;29(1):52-58. doi: 10.1080/10401334.2016.1202832. Epub 2016 Sep 7. PubMed PMID: 27603790.

Kogan JR, Conforti LN, Yamazaki K, Iobst W, Holmboe ES. Commitment to Change and Challenges to Implementing Changes After Workplace-Based Assessment Rater Training. Acad Med. 2016 Jul 26. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27465231.

Torre DM, Ferris A, Daley B, Durning SJ. Common Evaluation Designs in Medical Education III. Acad Med. 2016 Dec;91(12):1707. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001324. PubMed PMID: 27465230.

Power DV, Harris IB, Swentko W, Halaas GW, Benson BJ. Comparing rural-trained medical students with their peers: performance in a primary care OSCE. Teach Learn Med. 2006 Summer;18(3):196-202. PubMed PMID: 16776605.

Cook DA, Lineberry M. Consequences Validity Evidence: Evaluating the Impact of Educational Assessments. Acad Med. 2016 Jun;91(6):785-95. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001114. PubMed PMID: 26839945.

Sebok-Syer SS et al. Considering the interdependence of clinical performance: implications for assessment and entrustment. Med Educ. 2018 Apr 19. doi: 10.1111/medu.13588. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29676054.

Finucane PM, Bourgeois-Law GA, Ineson SL, Kaigas TM; International Performance Assessment Coalition. A comparison of performance assessment programs for medical practitioners in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United kingdom. Acad Med. 2003 Aug;78(8):837-43. PubMed PMID: 12915380.

Howard J, Sparrow N, Turnbull CJ, Hydes AL. Continuing professional development and revalidation: an analysis of general practitioners' recorded learning. Educ Prim Care. 2009 Jul;20(4):298-303. PubMed PMID: 19689851.

Lockyer J et al. Core principles of assessment in competency-based medical education. Med Teach. 2017 Jun;39(6):609-616. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2017.1315082. PubMed PMID: 28598746.

Er HM et al. Development of an institutional assessment framework. Med Educ. 2018 May;52(5):572-573. doi: 10.1111/medu.13568. Epub 2018 Mar 24. PubMed PMID: 29572932.

Ahmed H, Rhydderch M, Matthews P. Do general practice selection scores predict success at MRCGP? An exploratory study. Educ Prim Care. 2012 Mar;23(2):95-100. PubMed PMID: 22449464.

Edwards J, Petra H. The effects of external quality management on workplace-based assessment. Educ Prim Care. 2013 Feb;24(2):105-10. PubMed PMID: 23498577.

Gruppen LD et al. Enhanced Requirements for Assessment in a Competency-Based, Time-Variable Medical Education System. Acad Med. 2018 Mar;93(3S Competency-Based, Time-Variable Education in the Health Professions):S17-S21. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002066. PubMed PMID: 29485482.

Koczwara A, Tavabie A, Patterson F. Evaluation of GP appraiser development centres using emotional intelligence: can positive learning outcomes be transferred to practice? Educ Prim Care. 2011 Nov;22(6):399-408. PubMed PMID: 22413661.

McGaghie WC. Evaluation Apprehension and Impression Management in Clinical Medical Education. Acad Med. 2018 May;93(5):685-686. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002143. PubMed PMID: 29369087.

Lacasse M, Théorêt J, Tessier S, Arsenault L. Expectations of clinical teachers and faculty regarding development of the CanMEDS-Family Medicine competencies: Laval developmental benchmarks scale for family medicine residency training. Teach Learn Med. 2014;26(3):244-51. doi: 10.1080/10401334.2014.914943. PubMed PMID: 25010235.

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Irby DM, Hamstra SJ. Parting the Clouds: Three Professionalism Frameworks in Medical Education. Acad Med. 2016 Apr 26. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27119331.

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Doukas DJ, Volpe RL. Why Pull the Arrow When You Cannot See the Target? Framing Professionalism Goals in Medical Education. Acad Med. 2018 Apr 24. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002264. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29697430

Murphy DJ, Bruce DA, Mercer SW, Eva K. Workplace-based assessment: a robust addition to general practice specialist training. Educ Prim Care. 2009 Nov;20(6):486-8; author reply 488-9. PubMed PMID: 20132645.

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