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Australian Family Physician

Kehoe H, Lovett RW. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health assessments -barriers to improving uptake. Aust Fam Physician. 2008 Dec;37(12):1033-8. PubMed PMID: 19142280.
This study investigated the reasons for low uptake of Medicare Benefits Schedule rebated health assessments for Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders in mainstream general practice in the Australian Capital Territory region.

Johanson RP, Hill P. Indigenous health - a role for private general practice. Aust Fam Physician. 2011 Jan-Feb;40(1-2):16-9. PubMed PMID: 21301687.
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander life expectancy gap is associated with lower primary care usage by Indigenous Australians. Many Indigenous Australians regard private general practitioners as their usual source of healthcare. However, a range of barriers results in relatively low access to primary care, with subsequent inadequate prevention and management of chronic disease. Indigenous primary care requires development of a set of attributes by the GP. Clinician autonomy may need to be tempered to be responsive to the needs of local indigenous communities.


Fuller J, Hermeston W, Passey M, Fallon T, Muyambi K. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Jun 10;12:152. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-152. PubMed PMID: 22682504; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3472193.
While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. This study conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery.

Kelaher M, Ferdinand A, Taylor H. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis. BMC Ophthalmol. 2012 Sep 24;12:51. doi: 10.1186/1471-2415-12-51. PubMed PMID: 22998612; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3514169. 
This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians.

McCalman J, Tsey K, Clifford A, Earles W, Shakeshaft A, Bainbridge R. Applying what works: a systematic search of the transfer and implementation of promising Indigenous Australian health services and programs. BMC Public Health. 2012 Aug 3;12:600. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-600. Review. PubMed PMID: 22856688; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3490811.
The transfer and implementation of acceptable and effective health services, programs and innovations across settings provides an important and potentially cost-effective strategy for reducing Indigenous Australians' high burden of disease. This study reports a systematic review of Indigenous health services, programs and innovations to examine the extent to which studies considered processes of transfer and implementation within and across Indigenous communities and healthcare settings.

Peiris D, Brown A, Howard M, Rickards BA, Tonkin A, Ring I, Hayman N, Cass A. Building better systems of care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: findings from the Kanyini health systems assessment. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Oct 28;12:369. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-369. PubMed PMID: 23102409; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3529689.
Australian federal and jurisdictional governments are implementing ambitious policy initiatives intended to improve health care access and outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In this qualitative study we explored Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS) staff views on factors needed to improve chronic care systems and assessed their relevance to the new policy environment.

Vos T, Barker B, Begg S, Stanley L, Lopez AD. Burden of disease and injury in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples: the Indigenous health gap. Int J Epidemiol. 2009 Apr;38(2):470-7. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyn240. Epub 2008 Nov 30. PubMed PMID: 19047078.
Disparities in health status between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and the total Australian population have been documented in a fragmentary manner using disparate health outcome measures.

McDonald E, Bailie R, Grace J, Brewster D. A case study of physical and social barriers to hygiene and child growth in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. BMC Public Health. 2009 Sep 18;9:346. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-346. PubMed PMID: 19761623; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2758870. 
Despite Australia's wealth, poor growth is common among Aboriginal children living in remote communities. An important underlying factor for poor growth is the unhygienic state of the living environment in these communities. This study explores the physical and social barriers to achieving safe levels of hygiene for these children.

Hoy WE. "Closing the gap" by 2030: aspiration versus reality in Indigenous health. Med J Aust. 2009 May 18;190(10):542-4. PubMed PMID: 19450194. The goal of "closing the gap" in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people by 2030 is probably unattainable. Despite our best efforts, it is implausible that, within 21 years, preventive strategies, social or medical, will extinguish all excess expression and risk of chronic disease, the greatest contributor to excess Indigenous deaths ...

Zhao Y, Wright J, Begg S, Guthridge S. Decomposing Indigenous life expectancy gap by risk factors: a life table analysis.Popul Health Metr. 2013 Jan 29;11(1):1. doi: 10.1186/1478-7954-11-1. PubMed PMID: 23360645; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3585166.
The estimated gap in life expectancy (LE) between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians was 12 years for men and 10 years for women, whereas the Northern Territory Indigenous LE gap was at least 50% greater than the national figures. This study aims to explain the Indigenous LE gap by common modifiable risk factors.

Rumbold AR, Bailie RS, Si D, Dowden MC, Kennedy CM, Cox RJ, O'Donoghue L, Liddle HE, Kwedza RK, Thompson SC, Burke HP, Brown AD, Weeramanthri T, Connors CM. Delivery of maternal health care in Indigenous primary care services: baseline data for an ongoing quality improvement initiative. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011 Mar 7;11:16. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-16. PubMed PMID: 21385387; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3066246.
Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) populations have disproportionately high rates of adverse perinatal outcomes relative to other Australians. Poorer access to good quality maternal health care is a key driver of this disparity. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of delivery of maternity care and service gaps in primary care services in Australian Indigenous communities.

Kingsley J, Townsend M, Henderson-Wilson C, Bolam B. Developing an exploratory framework linking Australian Aboriginal peoples' connection to country and concepts of wellbeing. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013 Feb 7;10(2):678-98. doi: 10.3390/ijerph10020678. PubMed PMID: 23435590; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3635170.
Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing.

Ong KS, Carter R, Kelaher M, Anderson I. Differences in primary health care delivery to Australia's Indigenous population: a template for use in economic evaluations. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Sep 7;12:307. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-307. PubMed PMID: 22954136; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3468365.
Health economics is increasingly used to inform resource allocation decision-making, however, there is comparatively little evidence relevant to minority groups. In part, this is due to lack of cost and effectiveness data specific to these groups upon which economic evaluations can be based. Consequently, resource allocation decisions often rely on mainstream evidence which may not be representative, resulting in inequitable funding decisions. This paper describes a method to overcome this deficiency for Australia's Indigenous population. A template has been developed which can adapt mainstream health intervention data to the Indigenous setting.

Clifford A, Jackson Pulver L, Richmond R, Shakeshaft A, Ivers R. Disseminating best-evidence health-care to Indigenous health-care settings andprograms in Australia: identifying the gaps. Health Promot Int. 2009 Dec;24(4):404-15. doi: 10.1093/heapro/dap039. Epub 2009 Nov 3. Review. PubMed PMID: 19887577.
Indigenous Australians experience a disproportionately greater burden of harm from smoking, poor nutrition, alcohol misuse and physical inactivity (SNAP risk factors) than the general Australian population. A critical step in further improving efforts to reduce this harm is to review existing efforts aimed at increasing the uptake of evidence-based interventions in Indigenous-specific health-care settings and programs.

Paradies YC, Cunningham J. The DRUID study: racism and self-assessed health status in an indigenous population. BMC Public Health. 2012 Feb 14;12:131. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-131. PubMed PMID: 22333047; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3305656.
There is now considerable evidence from around the world that racism is associated with both mental and physical ill-health. However, little is known about the mediating factors between racism and ill-health. This paper investigates relationships between racism and self-assessed mental and physical health among Indigenous Australians as well as potential mediators of these relationships.

Smith K, Flicker L, Shadforth G, Carroll E, Ralph N, Atkinson D, Lindeman M, Schaper F, Lautenschlager NT, LoGiudice D. 'Gotta be sit down and worked out together': views of Aboriginal caregivers and service providers on ways to improve dementia care for Aboriginal Australians. Rural Remote Health. 2011;11(2):1650. Epub 2011 Jun 14. PubMed PMID: 21688948.
Dementia is five-fold more prevalent among Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal Australians. Despite this, the quality of care available to people living with dementia in remote Aboriginal communities is poor. The objective of this study was to determine ways to overcome factors affecting the successful delivery of services to Aboriginal people with dementia living in remote communities, and to their families and communities.

Eades SJ, Taylor B, Bailey S, Williamson AB, Craig JC, Redman S; SEARCH Investigators. The health of urban Aboriginal people: insufficient data to close the gap. Med J Aust. 2010 Nov 1;193(9):521-4. Review. PubMed PMID: 21034386.
The Australian Government has committed to reducing Indigenous disadvantage, including closing the life-expectancy gap within a generation, and to halving the gap in mortality rates for children under 5 years of age within a decade. Sixty per cent of the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians is attributable to the health of Indigenous people living in non-remote areas of Australia.

Tait PW. How can Australia do better for Indigenous health? Med J Aust. 2011 May 16;194(10):501-2. PubMed PMID: 21644891.
Respect, tolerance and trust in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are needed from government to improve the health and wellbeing of Indigenous Australians.

Shahid S, Durey A, Bessarab D, Aoun SM, Thompson SC. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013 Nov 4;13:460. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-460. PubMed PMID: 24188503; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3835135.
Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians' perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers' (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs' views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA).

Couzos S, Sheedy V, Delaney Thiele D. Improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people's access to medicines--the QUMAX program. Med J Aust. 2011 Jul 18;195(2):62-3. PubMed PMID: 21770871.
The QUMAX program, which commenced in November 2008, aimed to overcome a range of known barriers to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ access to medicines, and was jointly developed and managed by the National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation and the Pharmacy Guild of Australia.

Hayman NE, White NE, Spurling, GK Improving Indigenous patients' access to mainstream health services: the Inala experience. Med J Aust. 2009 May 18;190(10):604-6. PubMed PMID: 19450218.
In 1994, only 12 Indigenous people attended the mainstream general practice in Inala, south-western Brisbane, Queensland. An Indigenous community focus group and telephone interviews revealed deficits such as: few items (eg, artwork) that Indigenous people could identify with; lack of Indigenous staff; staff perceived as unfriendly; inflexibility regarding time; and intolerance of Indigenous children's behaviour. Access to the Inala Indigenous Health Service by Indigenous people improved when these issues were addressed, and has grown significantly every year from 1995 to 2008. Other important factors in improving access include: energetic Indigenous leadership; enabling bulk billing to increase funding; moving to a stand-alone clinic; and engaging with teaching, research and community programs. A Centre of Excellence in Indigenous Primary Health Care is envisaged as the next innovation required to improve access and quality of service, and to close the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous health outcomes.

Thompson SL, Chenhall RD, Brimblecombe JK. Indigenous perspectives on active living in remote Australia: a qualitative exploration of the socio-cultural link between health, the environment and economics. BMC Public Health. 2013 May 15;13:473. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-473. PubMed PMID: 23672247; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3662620.
The burden of chronic disease in Indigenous Australia is more than double that of non-Indigenous populations and even higher in remote Northern Territory (NT) communities. Sufficient levels of physical activity are known to reduce the risk of chronic disease and improve the health of those already suffering from chronic disease. It has been identified that effective promotion of physical activity in Indigenous settings requires the diverse cultural perspectives and participation of Indigenous people. However, Indigenous concepts of physical activity are not represented in the public health literature and examples of Indigenous involvement in physical activity promotion are scarce. This study aimed to explore and describe local perspectives, experiences and meanings of physical activity in two remote NT Indigenous communities.

Garvey G, Towney P, McPhee JR, Little M, Kerridge IH. Is there an Aboriginal bioethic? J Med Ethics. 2004 Dec;30(6):570-5. PubMed PMID: 15574447; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1733993.
In this paper the authors highlight values and ethical convictions that may be held by Aboriginal peoples in order to explore how health practitioners can engage Aboriginal patients in a manner that is more appropriate.

Anjou MD, Boudville AI, Taylor HR. Local co-ordination and case management can enhance Indigenous eye care--a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013 Jul 3;13:255. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-255. PubMed PMID: 23822115; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3716985.
Indigenous adults suffer six times more blindness than other Australians but 94% of this vision loss is unnecessary being preventable or treatable. We have explored the barriers and solutions to improve Indigenous eye health and proposed significant system changes required to close the gap for Indigenous eye health. This paper aims to identify the local co-ordination and case management requirements necessary to improve eye care for Indigenous Australians.

Paul D, Carr S, Milroy H. Making a difference: the early impact of an Aboriginal health undergraduate medical curriculum. Med J Aust. 2006 May 15;184(10):522-5. PubMed PMID: 16719755.
This paper aims to describe the implementation of an integrated Aboriginal health curriculum into the medical course at the University of Western Australia (UWA) and the early effect on students' perceptions of their knowledge and ability in the area of Aboriginal health.

Jorm AF, Bourchier SJ, Cvetkovski S, Stewart G. Mental health of Indigenous Australians: a review of findings from community surveys. Med J Aust. 2012 Feb 6;196:118-21. Review. PubMed PMID: 22304605.
This paper aims to assemble what is known about the mental health of Indigenous Australians from community surveys.

Zhao Y, You J, Guthridge SL, Lee AH. A multilevel analysis on the relationship between neighbourhood poverty and public hospital utilization: is the high Indigenous morbidity avoidable? BMC Public Health. 2011 Sep 27;11:737. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-737. PubMed PMID: 21951514; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3203263.
The estimated life expectancy at birth for Indigenous Australians is 10-11 years less than the general Australian population. The mean family income for Indigenous people is also significantly lower than for non-Indigenous people. In this paper we examine poverty or socioeconomic disadvantage as an explanation for the Indigenous health gap in hospital morbidity in Australia.

Parker EJ, Misan G, Chong A, Mills H, Roberts-Thomson K, Horowitz AM, Jamieson LM. An oral health literacy intervention for Indigenous adults in a rural setting in Australia. BMC Public Health. 2012 Jun 20;12:461. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-461. PubMed PMID: 22716205; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3416720.
Indigenous Australians suffer substantially poorer oral health than their non-Indigenous counterparts and new approaches are needed to address these disparities. Previous work in Port Augusta, South Australia, a regional town with a large Indigenous community, revealed associations between low oral health literacy scores and self-reported oral health outcomes. This study aims to determine if implementation of a functional, context-specific oral health literacy intervention improves oral health literacy-related outcomes measured by use of dental services, and assessment of oral health knowledge, oral health self-care and oral health- related self-efficacy.

Steenkamp M, Rumbold A, Barclay L, Kildea S. A population-based investigation into inequalities amongst Indigenous mothers and newborns by place of residence in the Northern Territory, Australia. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012 Jun 9;12:44. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-44. PubMed PMID: 22682627; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3480936.
Comparisons of birth outcomes between Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations show marked inequalities. These comparisons obscure Indigenous disparities. There is much variation in terms of culture, language, residence, and access to services amongst Australian Indigenous peoples. We examined outcomes by region and remoteness for Indigenous subgroups and explored data for communities to inform health service delivery and interventions.

Baum FE, Legge DG, Freeman T, Lawless A, Labonté R, Jolley GM. The potential for multi-disciplinary primary health care services to take action on the social determinants of health: actions and constraints. BMC Public Health. 2013 May 10;13:460. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-460. PubMed PMID: 23663304; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3660265.
The Commission on the Social Determinants of Health and the World Health Organization have called for action to address the social determinants of health. This paper considers the extent to which primary health care services in Australia are able to respond to this call. The study reports on interview data from an empirical study of primary health care centres in Adelaide and Alice Springs, Australia.

Carey TA. A qualitative study of a social and emotional well-being servicefor a remote Indigenous Australian community: implications for access,effectiveness, and sustainability. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013 Mar 4;13:80. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-80. PubMed PMID: 23452404; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3599325.
In response to significant and serious events such as suicides and relationship violence in a remote Indigenous community, a social and emotional wellbeing service (SEWBS) was developed. After the service had been running for over three years, an independent evaluation was initiated by the local health board. The aim of the evaluation was to explore the impact of SEWBS, including issues of effectiveness and sustainability, from the experiences of people involved in the development and delivery of the service.

Anderson IP. Recent developments in national Aboriginal and Torres StraitIslander health strategy. Aust New Zealand Health Policy. 2004 Nov 18;1(1):3. PubMed PMID: 15679932; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC544962.
This paper describes some of the sentinel events in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health policy and strategy during 2003 and the early part of 2004.

Durey A, Thompson SC. Reducing the health disparities of IndigenousAustralians: time to change focus. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Jun 10;12:151. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-151. PubMed PMID: 22682494; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3431273.
Indigenous peoples have worse health than non-Indigenous, are over-represented amongst the poor and disadvantaged, have lower life expectancies, and success in improving disparities is limited. To address this, research usually focuses on disadvantaged and marginalised groups, offering only partial understanding of influences underpinning slow progress. Critical analysis is also required of those with the power to perpetuate or improve health inequities. In this paper, using Australia as a case example, we explore the effects of 'White', Anglo-Australian cultural dominance in health service delivery to Indigenous Australians. We address the issue using race as an organising principle, underpinned by relations of power.

Gould GS, McEwen A, Watters T, Clough AR, van der Zwan R. Should anti-tobaccomedia messages be culturally targeted for Indigenous populations? A systematic review and narrative synthesis. Tob Control. 2013 Jul;22(4):e7. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050436. Epub 2012 Aug 22. Review. PubMed PMID: 22918939.
This paper aims to summarise published empirical research on culturally targeted anti-tobacco media messages for Indigenous or First Nations people and examine the evidence for the effectiveness of targeted and non-targeted campaigns.

Marmot M. Social determinants and the health of Indigenous Australians. Med J Aust. 2011 May 16;194(10):512-3. PubMed PMID: 21644897.
Health is dependent on conditions that enable people to live lives they would choose to live.

Shepherd CC, Li J, Zubrick SR. Social gradients in the health of Indigenous Australians. Am J Public Health. 2012 Jan;102(1):107-17. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300354. Epub 2011 Nov 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 22095336; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3490556.
The pattern of association between socioeconomic factors and health outcomes has primarily depicted better health for those who are higher in the social hierarchy. Although this is a ubiquitous finding in the health literature, little is known about the interplay between these factors among indigenous populations. We begin to bridge this knowledge gap by assessing evidence on social gradients in indigenous health in Australia. We reveal a less universal and less consistent socioeconomic status patterning in health among Indigenous Australians, and discuss the plausibility of unique historical circumstances and social and cultural characteristics in explaining these patterns. A more robust evidence base in this field is fundamental to processes that aim to reduce the pervasive disparities between indigenous and nonindigenous population health.

Shepherd CC, Li J, Mitrou F, Zubrick SR. Socioeconomic disparities in the mental health of Indigenous children in Western Australia. BMC Public Health. 2012 Sep 10;12:756. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-756. PubMed PMID: 22958495; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3508977.
The burden of mental health problems among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is a major public health problem in Australia. While socioeconomic factors are implicated as important determinants of mental health problems in mainstream populations, their bearing on the mental health of Indigenous Australians remains largely uncharted across all age groups.

Mohajer N, Bessarab D, Earnest J. There should be more help out here! A qualitative study of the needs of Aboriginal adolescents in rural Australia. Rural Remote Health. 2009 Apr-Jun;9(2):1137. Epub 2009 Apr 29. PubMed PMID: 19402759.
Aboriginal adolescents living in or near rural towns have different social and cultural needs than Aboriginal adolescents living in large cities or remote areas. Identification of health needs by the community is an established principle of health promotion for improving community health. The objective of this study was to identify the views of rural Aboriginal adolescents regarding health promotion topics, the most important health problems they faced, their support networks and their beliefs about who should help them meet their health needs.


Isaacs AN, Pyett P, Oakley-Browne MA, Gruis H, Waples-Crowe P. Barriers and facilitators to the utilization of adult mental health services by Australia's Indigenous people: seeking a way forward. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2010 Apr;19(2):75-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0349.2009.00647.x. PubMed PMID: 20367644.
This paper explores the barriers and facilitators for Indigenous people seeking mental health services in Australia and identifies key elements in the development and maintenance of partnerships for improved service delivery and future research.

McBain-Rigg KE, Veitch C. Cultural barriers to health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Mount Isa. Aust J Rural Health. 2011 Apr;19(2):70-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1584.2011.01186.x. PubMed PMID: 21438948.
Access barriers to health care for minority populations has been a feature of medical, health and social science literature for over a decade. Considerations of cultural barriers have featured in this literature, but definitions of what constitutes a cultural barrier have varied. In this paper, data from recent interviews with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Aboriginal Health Workers and other non-Indigenous health professionals in north-west Queensland assist to refine the meaning of this term and uncovered other issues disguised as 'cultural' difference

Wise M, Massi L, Rose M, Nancarrow H, Conigrave K, Bauman A, Hearn S. Developing and implementing a state-wide Aboriginal health promotion program: theprocess and factors influencing successful delivery. Health Promot J Austr. 2012 Apr;23(1):25-9. PubMed PMID: 22730934.
The prevalence of smoking among the adult Aboriginal population is almost double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Research shows smoking cessation brief interventions have a positive impact on quit attempts. However, examples of statewide, Aboriginal-led initiatives that ensure health service delivery of brief intervention to all Aboriginal clients are limited.

Ou L, Chen J, Garrett P, Hillman K. Ethnic and Indigenous access to early childhood healthcare services in Australia: parents' perceived unmet needs and related barriers. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2011 Feb;35(1):30-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2010.00633.x. Epub 2010 Dec 9. PubMed PMID: 21299698.
This study aims to evaluate the parents' perceived unmet needs in early childhood healthcare services among Indigenous, non-English-speaking background (NESB) and English-speaking background (ESB) children and the related barriers.

Clifford A, Shakeshaft A. Evidence-based alcohol screening and brief intervention in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services: experiences of health-care providers. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2011 Jan;30(1):55-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2010.00192.x. PubMed PMID: 21219498.
Alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) is a cost-effective treatment for reducing alcohol misuse in non-Indigenous populations. To increase the likelihood of alcohol SBI proving cost-effective for Indigenous Australians in practice, strategies to increase its uptake in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) should be implemented. The aim of this study is to describe the experiences of health-care providers supported to implement evidence-based alcohol SBI in two ACCHSs.

Digiacomo M, Abbott P, Davison J, Moore L, Davidson PM. Facilitating uptake of Aboriginal Adult Health Checks through community engagement and health promotion. Qual Prim Care. 2010;18(1):57-64. PubMed PMID: 20359413.
Adult Health Checks (AHCs) for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (MBS Item 710) promote comprehensive physical and psychosocial health assessments. Despite the poor uptake of health assessments in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, a small number of successful implementation initiatives have been reported. In order to ensure uptake of these screening initiatives, there remains a need to demonstrate the feasibility of models of implementing AHCs.

Ou L, Chen J, Hillman K. Have the health gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian children changed over time? Results from an Australian National Representative Longitudinal Study. Matern Child Health J. 2012 May;16(4):814-23. doi: 10.1007/s10995-011-0786-9. PubMed PMID: 21503691.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes of health gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children over time and to explore critical factors that contribute to the changes.

Digiacomo M, Davidson PM, Taylor KP, Smith JS, Dimer L, Ali M, Wood MM, Leahy TG, Thompson SC. Health information system linkage and coordination are critical for increasing access to secondary prevention in Aboriginal health: a qualitative study. Qual Prim Care. 2010;18(1):17-26. PubMed PMID: 20359409.
Aboriginal Australians have low rates of participation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR), despite having high rates of cardiovascular disease. Barriers to CR participation reflect multiple patient-related issues. However, an examination of the broader context of health service delivery design and implementation is needed.

Schoen D, Balchin D, Thompson S. Health promotion resources for Aboriginal people: lessons learned from consultation and evaluation of diabetes foot care resources. Health Promot J Austr. 2010 Apr;21(1):64-9. PubMed PMID: 20406155. 
Despite the startling age specific rate ratio for amputations in 25-49 year olds of, 41.25 for knee amputations and 27.5 for toe/foot amputations for Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal people, there are no diabetes foot care education brochures or health promotion media available free of charge for Aboriginal people. This study consulted Aboriginal people about existing and potential resources for education on foot care.

Clifford A, Shakeshaft A, Deans C. How and when health-care practitioners in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services deliver alcohol screening and brief intervention, and why they don't: a qualitative study. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2012 Jan;31(1):13-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2011.00305.x. Epub 2011 Mar 22. PubMed PMID: 21426422.
Indigenous Australians experience a disproportionately high burden of alcohol-related harm. Alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) offers the potential to reduce this harm if barriers to its delivery in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) can be optimally targeted.

Cheng MS, Clarke A, Moore TD, Lau PM. Making the connection: a qualitative study of brokerage in Aboriginal health in a metropolitan area of Victoria and a regional area of New South Wales. Aust Health Rev. 2011 Feb;35(1):18-22. doi: 10.1071/AH09809. PubMed PMID: 21367325.
Health brokerage is one method being employed by government health agencies in an attempt to improve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people's access to primary healthcare. This qualitative study explores key stakeholders' understanding and acceptance of the health brokerage model, prior to the implementation of brokerage services.

Durey A. Reducing racism in Aboriginal health care in Australia: where does cultural education fit? Aust N Z J Public Health. 2010 Jul;34 Suppl 1:S87-92. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2010.00560.x. PubMed PMID: 20618302.
This paper discusses whether educating health professionals and undergraduate students in culturally respectful health service delivery is effective in reducing racism, improving practice and lessening the disparities in health care between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians.

Ferdinand AS, Paradies Y, Kelaher MA. The role of effective partnerships in an Australian place-based intervention to reduce race-based discrimination. Public Health Rep. 2013 Nov;128 Suppl 3:54-60. PubMed PMID: 24179280; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3789613.
Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) is an ongoing place-based pilot program aimed at improving health outcomes among Aboriginal and migrant communities through increased social and economic participation.

Cunningham J. Socio-economic gradients in self-reported diabetes for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians aged 18-64. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2010 Jul;34 Suppl 1:S18-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2010.00547.x. PubMed PMID: 20618286.
The objective of this paper is to examine and compare socio-economic gradients in diabetes among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

Liaw ST, Lau P, Pyett P, Furler J, Burchill M, Rowley K, Kelaher M. Successful chronic disease care for Aboriginal Australians requires cultural competence. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2011 Jun;35(3):238-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2011.00701.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 21627724.
The objective of this study is to review the literature to determine the attributes of culturally appropriate healthcare to inform the design of chronic disease management (CDM) models for Aboriginal patients in urban general practice.

Durey A, Thompson SC, Wood M. Time to bring down the twin towers in poor Aboriginal hospital care: addressing institutional racism and misunderstandings in communication. Intern Med J. 2012 Jan;42(1):17-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2011.02628.x. PubMed PMID: 22032537.
Using an eclectic methodology based on observations and discussions with health practitioners experienced in working with Aboriginal patients, this paper identifies how cross-cultural misunderstandings undermine the quality of care to Aboriginal patients in hospital and offers suggestions for improving practice. It also explores the concept of institutional racism and challenges doctors to reflect on their role in perpetuating power imbalances.


The 2008-2030 National Indigenous Health Equality Targets: suggestions for transforming potential into sustainable health improvements for Indigenous Australians (peer reviewed)
This article reviews the ‘Close the Gap’ document and suggests refinements to facilitate its use as a sustainable framework for health improvement of Australia’s Indigenous people.

Achieving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health equality within a generation - A human rights based approach
From the 2005 Social Justice Report, produced by the Australian Human Rights Commission.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet: Closing the Gap resources
Resources on the Closing the Gap commitments of the Council of Australian Governments (COAG).

Health inequalities in Australia: morbidity, health behaviours, risk factors and health service use
Produced by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2006.

NACCHO Close the Gap: Progress and Priorities 2016
Summarised progess of the campaign.

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey, 2012-13
This survey, which was conducted in remote and non-remote areas throughout Australia, is designed to collect a range of information from Indigenous Australians about health related issues, including health status, risk factors and actions, and socioeconomic circumstances.

National Close the Gap Day: Oxfam
Details on the Close the Gap event.

National guide to a preventive health assessment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
The National Guide is a practical resource intended for all health professionals delivering primary healthcare to Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people.

Overview of Australian Indigenous health status, 2016
This Overview of Australian Indigenous health status provides information about: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations; the context of Indigenous health; various measures of population health status; selected health conditions; and health risk and protective factors.

What works in Indigenous primary health care health reform? A review of the evidence
Produced by the University of South Australia, Health Economics and Social Policy Group, 2012.



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