Prescribing drugs of dependence in general practice, Part A

4. Accountable prescribing
4.1 Being an accountable prescriber of drugs of dependence
☰ Table of contents


Reference to the Standards

GPs must prescribe within legislative frameworks and should comply with professional standards and approved clinical guidelines

(Extrapolated from Criterion 5.3.1)20

GPs must seek a permit or authority from the relevant state or territory health department when prescribing an S8 drug to a patient who is drug dependent


GPs should maintain or improve their skills in relevant areas such as chronic pain, mental health or drugs of dependence

(Extrapolated from Criterion 3.2.1, Flagged indicator C)20

GPs should use universal precautions* to guide their approach to patient who require drugs of dependence


GPs should inform patients that drugs of dependence are to be prescribed from only one practice and preferably by one GP, and drugs should be dispensed from one pharmacy


GPs must maintain professional boundaries when prescribing drugs of dependence


GPs have the right to discontinue care of a patient who has behaved in a violent or threatening manner

(Extrapolated from Criterion 2.1.1)20

GPs should be prepared to use specialist support to manage problematic drug use in patients with more complex issues or if the clinical situation deteriorates

(Extrapolated from Criteria 3.1.2, 3.1.3, 4.1.2, 5.3.1)20

GPs must ensure that patient records are clear, up-to-date and contain sufficient information for another practitioner to take over care

(Adapted from Criteria 1.7.1, 1.7.2,1.7.3)20

*Universal precautions here refers to the 10 steps of universal precautions in pain medicine.

Accountable prescribing has been defined as a commitment to evidence-based practice, the use of medicines with proven effectiveness and the avoidance of medicines when they do not help or cause harm.45

This is particularly relevant to prescription drug misuse.

Good prescribing practice involves careful and considered diagnosis, clear therapeutic goals, the use of non-drug therapies where suitable, prescribing appropriate types, formulations and amounts of medication, explaining the effects of medications and any risk of dependence, and implementing regular medication reviews.

GPs are required to be accountable prescribers of drugs of dependence and must prescribe within legislative frameworks, professional standards and approved clinical guidelines.

To minimise the harms associated with prescription drug misuse, GPs need to maintain vigilance in identifying substance misuse or dependence, assist patients in recognising misuse or dependence where it exists, set goals for recovery and assist patients to seek appropriate treatment. Clinical tools have been developed for these purposes.

4.1 Being an accountable prescriber of drugs of dependence

4.1.1 Professional boundaries

The public and health professions have an expectation that the therapeutic context is safe for patients. It is the health practitioner’s responsibility to behave ethically at all times and maintain professional boundaries.

With decreasing formality in medicine, GPs are more likely to encourage the use of first names and to develop a relaxed, collaborative relationship with their patients. All GPs should be mindful of simultaneously maintaining clear professional and personal boundaries.

Boundaries represent the edge of appropriate behaviour and serve two important purposes: they structure the professional relationship in ways that maintain the identity and roles of the patient and the professional and they separate the therapeutic relationship from social, sexual, romantic and business relationships.

Setting professional boundaries may include:46

  • practitioner behaviour standards
  • using universal precautions
  • not prescribing or dispensing controlled substances for self or family.

4.1.2 Legal obligations

All practitioners have a duty to act within state, territory and national legislative frameworks, and to manage their prescribing practices within the laws and clinical and professional standards.

Practitioners who are unaware of their legal obligations risk being the subject of legal prosecution and/or disciplinary action by the medical board.

GPs need to be aware of their obligations regarding the impact of medication on the patient’s ability to safely perform usual activities such as driving (eg Jet’s Law in Queensland ).

Medical defence organisations provide support and information on prescribing drugs of dependence. For more information, visit:

4.1.3 Evidence-based medicine

Doctors should use evidence-based interventions where they are available.

Occasionally, doctors prescribe drugs of dependence to address perceived patient expectations, but without necessarily improving health and potentially resulting in harm.

Unfortunately, there are few quality measures for accountable prescribing.45 Protocols may be useful to ensure consistent provision of good practice. The practice team should work within a clinical governance framework and be prepared to justify their clinical decisions, particularly when operating outside guidelines. Doctors should keep comprehensive notes to support their decisions and monitor the effectiveness of their care using clinical audit.

4.1.4 Skills and knowledge

GPs are expected to update their knowledge and skills according to emerging evidence and developments in professional practice. It is each practitioner’s responsibility to ensure competency in the areas they choose to manage. Practitioners should also be aware of their clinical limitations.47

Doctors who are untrained48 or become ‘dated’ in their clinical competencies can be at higher risk for inappropriate prescribing.49

Numerous educational interventions have been conducted to improve prescribing competency.50 The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Guide to good prescribing51 has the largest body of evidence to support its use in a wide variety of settings.50,52

Doctors prescribing drugs of dependence should review their pharmacology, including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, drug–drug interactions and signs of intoxication and withdrawal. They should also be aware of the epidemiology of abuse and appropriate treatment indications and contraindications, and they should be able to perform basic alcohol and drug addiction screening assessments.53

Community pharmacists may be a valuable resource.54

4.1.5 Universal precautions

Adoption of a universal precautions approach (used in pain medicine) may improve patient care and minimise the risk of harm and medico-legal issues. The following universal precautions are a guide to the proper evaluation and management of patients, and are applicable to all drugs of dependence:55

  • Make a diagnosis with appropriate differential diagnoses.
  • Undertake a psychosocial assessment that includes risk of addictive disorders.
  • Use informed consent.
  • Use treatment agreements.
  • Undertake a pre- and post-intervention assessment that includes pain score and level of function.
  • Commence a trial of appropriate opioid therapy with an appropriate combination of adjunctive medications.
  • Reassess pain score and level of function.
  • Routinely assess the five As of pain medicine (analgesia, activity, adverse events, aberrant behaviour, affect).
  • Periodically review the diagnosis and comorbid conditions, including addictive disorders.
  • Carefully document initial assessment and each follow-up.

4.1.6 Prescription writing

GPs should use prescription-writing techniques to minimise misuse and abuse.

When writing prescriptions for drugs of dependence, GPs must:53

  • prescribe the appropriate amount to carry through to the next appointment
  • write out the number dispensed in letters and numerals (ie 14 and fourteen)
  • draw a large ‘Z’ at the bottom of the prescription so that further items cannot be added (if using paper prescription stationery).

Prescribers can decrease the risk of misuse by reducing access and temptation to overuse medication through much more frequent dispensing of smaller quantities of medications. This can range from weekly, twice weekly to daily (supervised) dispensing. This is aided by a one-practice and, preferably, one-GP approach, and the dispensing of medication through one pharmacy.

4.1.7 The ‘prescription traps’

The following is a compilation of prescription issues that have been noted in coroners’ proceedings. GPs are advised to consider these in reviewing their own prescribing habits.

  • Patients requesting private scripts for drugs of dependence.
  • Patients presenting with out-dated doctor’s letter requesting medication.
  • Excessive prescribing without proper assessment of potential psychiatric conditions.
  • Excessive prescribing without proper assessment of pain management options, including specialist referral.
  • Prescribing contrary to statutory guidelines or regulations.
  • Prescribing dangerous (high-risk) medication to unknown patients, particularly opioids and benzodiazepines.
  • Prescribing benzodiazepines as a first-line treatment for psychiatric disorders.
  • The inappropriate use of benzodiazepines in pain management.
  • The inappropriate use of opioids in pain management, particularly chronic non-malignant pain.
  • The inappropriate combined use of benzodiazepines and opioids in pain management.
  • The use of pethidine in pain management (particularly for the treatment of migraines).
  • The use of injectable medication, particularly opioids, by GPs for pain treatment.
  • Prescription of medications with potentially dangerous interactions, particularly, tramadol and antidepressant medication (risk of serotonin syndrome).
  • The use of quetiapine to treat insomnia and anxiety.

4.1.8 Working collaboratively

Doctors need to work with a range of other professionals and may work as part of a wider organisation or in a multidisciplinary team. It is usually good practice to ensure that clinical practices are standardised through local area policies and protocols. Depending on the setting and nature of the organisation (eg community drug treatment, primary care–led drug treatment service, hospital-based drug treatment service), doctors should be aware of accepted best practice protocols and work in accordance with these.

Patients who are at higher risk for dependency or have more complex issues need to be jointly managed between primary care and specialised drug and alcohol/addiction services, and require the input of mental health and/or pain specialists as required.

4.1.9 Managing issues between multiple providers

Circumstances occasionally arise when GPs feel uncomfortable about continuing care from other practitioners. GPs are under no obligation to continue another prescriber’s action if they deem this to be unsafe, inappropriate or impractical, such as:

  • drugs being prescribed off label, particularly drugs used for mental illness
  • disagreement between the GP and specialist about whether a drug of dependence is warranted
  • excessive prescribing that the GP is uncomfortable continuing.

There needs to be provision within the system for case conference and collaborative discussion of evidence-based treatment where all views are taken into consideration. When a GP does not feel happy to provide a prescription, they should not feel pressured to do so. The ideal situation is to have an independent drug and alcohol specialist review the case. Alternatively, referral back to the original provider for scripts may be warranted.

If taking over the care of an inherited patient, the GP should ask the following questions:56

  • Does this patient have a clear chronic pain disorder and/or mental illness diagnosis?
  • Is there justification for the drugs that have been prescribed?
  • Are the prescribed amounts appropriate?
  • If a patient is displaying drug-seeking behaviours, is this a sign of under-treated pain, addiction, or involvement in abuse or diversion of S8 opioids?

4.1.10 Getting support

Prescribing decisions around drugs of dependence can be difficult and new evidence is constantly emerging. GPs need to keep up to date with best prescribing practices. Formal and informal professional support (eg mentoring, clinical review, education, joining professional networks, using decision support tools) is important for all GPs and may be particularly relevant for GPs working in isolation.

There is some evidence that sole practitioners who are not affiliated with any professional college (ie not actively engaged in ongoing professional development programs) and treating opioid-dependent patients over a long period are at risk of inappropriate prescribing.5 Inappropriate prescribing can be the result of not taking a drug history, not conducting a physical examination and not asking if patients have had these drugs prescribed for them before, and, if so, when. Quality improvement activities such as continuing audit, clinical review and educative support may help reduce inappropriate prescribing.57–59

Deciding when to seek advice or consider referral to a psychiatrist or pain/addiction specialist

The ongoing treatment of pain, addiction and mental illness comorbidities is a complex undertaking. Initial referral may be needed to obtain a comprehensive evaluation, or to clarify the optimal therapeutic strategies.

Referral is typically considered for patients who are at higher risk, who have more complex needs or in patients at risk of adverse events. For example, patients who:56

  • are relatively young (eg <35 years old)
  • have a comorbid psychiatric or psychological disorder
  • have previous or current opioid, or SUDs
  • have indeterminate pathology.

Once an optimal regimen and monitoring approach has been implemented, referral may be warranted for the following reasons:56

  • unexpected drug dose escalation
  • ceiling drug dosages reached
  • suspected abuse or misuse
  • risk category change
  • high levels of patient distress
  • unusual opioid requirements or suspicions of drug diversion
  • poorly controlled comorbid psychiatric or psychological disorder.

Deciding when to refer a patient for hospital admission (through emergency departments)

Patients may need referral to hospital if they are at risk to themselves, pose risks to others or at risk by others.

Table 2. Identifying patient risk

Risks to and by patients

Risk to self

Risk to others

Risk by others

  • Self-harm and suicide, including repetitive self-injury
  • Self-neglect
  • Absconding and wandering (which may also be a risk to others)
  • Health including:
    • Drug and alcohol abuse
    • Medical conditions (eg alcohol withdrawal, unstable diabetes mellitus, delirium, organic brain injury, epilepsy)
  • Quality of life, including dignity, reputation, social and financial status
  • During pregnancy (both risk to mother and foetus)
  • Harassment
  • Stalking or predatory intent
  • Violence and aggression, including sexual assault or abuse
  • Neglect or abuse to children
  • Property damage, including arson
  • Public nuisance
  • Reckless behaviour that endangers others (eg drink driving)
  • Physical, sexual or emotional harm or abuse by others
  • Social or financial abuse or neglect by others
  • Deviation of supply of medication from elders who are dependent on medication (form of elder abuse)

Adapted from Mental Health Division, WA Department of Health (2008). Clinical Risk Assessment and Management (CRAM) in Western Australian Mental Health Services: Policy and Standards. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Health. Based on material originally sourced from: Ministry of Health (1998). Guidelines for Clinical Risk Assessment and Management in Mental Health Services. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health; Top End Mental Health (2004). Risk Assessment Tracking Tool. Northern Territory: Department of Health and Community Services. Adapted with permission from Department of Health, State of Western Australia.

4.1.11 Record keeping

GPs must maintain adequate, accurate and timely records regarding pain assessment, treatment plan, informed consent, ongoing assessment and consultation of the patient.

‘Adequate records’ refers to legible records containing, at a minimum, sufficient information to identify the patient, support the diagnosis and justify the treatment; adequate documentation of the results; advice and risks provided to the patient; and sufficient information for another practitioner to assume continuity of the patient’s care at any point in the treatment.

GPs also need to document the process of shared decision making and what information is shared.

  1. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. Standards for general practices, 4th edition. Melbourne: RACGP; 2013.
  2. Morden NE, Schwartz LM, Fisher ES, Woloshin S. Accountable prescribing. N Engl J Med 2013;369(4):299–302.
  3. Walter J. Prescribing for self and family: one national system, eight different rules. Sydney: MDA National; 2012.  [Accessed January 2014].
  4. General Medical Council. Good practice in prescribing and managing medicines and devices. London: GMC; 2013.
  5. Aronson JK, Henderson G, Webb DJ, Rawlins MD. A prescription for better prescribing. BMJ 2006;333(7566):459–60.
  6. Wolfert MZ, Gilson AM, Dahl JL, Cleary JF. Opioid analgesics for pain control: Wisconsin physicians’ knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and prescribing practices. Pain Med 2010;11(3):425–34.
  7. Kamarudin G, Penm J, Chaar B, Moles R. Educational interventions to improve prescribing competency: a systematic review. BMJ Open 2013;3(8):e003291.
  8. de Vries TPGM, Henning RH, Hogerzeil HV, Fresle DA. Guide to Good Prescribing: A practical manual. Geneva: World Health Organization Action Programme on Essential Drugs; 1994.
  9. Ross S, Loke YK. Do educational interventions improve prescribing by medical students and junior doctors? A systematic review. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009;67(6):662–70.
  10. Longo LP, Parran T, Jr., Johnson B, Kinsey W. Addiction: part II. Identification and management of the drug-seeking patient. Am Fam Physician 2000;61(8):2401–8.
  11. Majumdar SR, Soumerai SB. Why most interventions to improve physician prescribing do not seem to work. CMAJ 2003;169(1):30–1.
  12. Gourlay DL, Heit HA, Almahrezi A. Universal precautions in pain medicine: a rational approach to the treatment of chronic pain. Pain Med 2005;6(2):107–12.
  13. Drugs and Alcohol Services South Australia. Opioid prescription in chronic pain conditions. Adelaide: DAAS SA, the Flinders Medical Centre Pain Management Unit and the Royal Adelaide Hospital Pain Management Unit; 2008.
  14. Liu Y, Logan JE, Paulozzi LJ, Zhang K, Jones CM. Potential misuse and inappropriate prescription practices involving opioid analgesics. Am J Manag Care 2013;19(8):648–65.
  15. Fries Taylor E, Genevro J, Peikes D, Geonnotti K, Wang W, Meyers D. Buiding Quality Improvement Capacity in Primary Care: Supports and Resources. Decisiomaker Brief: Primary Care Quality Improvement No. 2. Rockville: AHRQ; 2013.
  16. Elliott RA, Woodward MC, Oborne CA. Improving benzodiazepine prescribing for elderly hospital inpatients using audit and multidisciplinary feedback. Intern Med J 2001;31(9):529–35.