Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis and management in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years of age



Prevention implies improvement in, and maintenance of, normal bone mineral density (BMD) and minimising the bone loss that is seen in postmenopausal women and ageing men, as well as prevention of minimal trauma fractures (which may occur in those with normal BMD or osteopenia as well).

Fracture risk increases over the lifetime, due to declining BMD and strength, as well as to non-skeletal risk factors for falls, including sarcopenia, poor balance, neuropsychological impairment, polypharmacy, poor nutrition and chronic diseases. As such, there is a gradual transition from prevention to treatment paradigms with advancing age, with the emphasis on BMD from childhood to middle age broadening to other factors implicated in falls risk in later life.

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  Osteoporosis-flowchart.pdf (PDF 0.98 MB)