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2022.1 CCE results release: Thursday 4 August 2022.
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Preventive activities in older age
Visual acuity should be assessed from 65 years of age using the Snellen chart (B) in those with symptoms or who request it. There is no evidence that screening of asymptomatic older people results in improved vision.50,51
Hearing loss is a common problem among older individuals and is associated with significant physical, functional and mental health consequences. Annual questioning about hearing impairment is recommended with people aged >65 years (B).
In some states and territories, there are legal requirements for annual assessment (eg driving aged >70 years).52
Eye disease and visual impairment increase three-fold with each decade of life after 40 years of age. They are often accompanied by isolation, depression and poorer social relationships, and are strongly associated with falls and hip fractures.53 It should be determined whether the patient is wearing up-to-date prescription spectacles, and whether there is a possibility of falls because the patient is no longer capable of managing a bifocal, trifocal or multifocal prescription. People at greater risk of visual loss are older people and those with diabetes and a family history of vision impairment; such history should be sought. Smoking (current or previous) increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration.54 Cataracts are the most common eye disease in Australians aged ≥65 years (42% of cases of visual impairment), followed by age-related macular degeneration (AMD; 30%), diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. The leading causes of blindness in those aged ≥65 years are AMD (55%), glaucoma (16%) and diabetic retinopathy (16%).55,56
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Appendix 13A - The 3 Incontinence Questions 3IQ (PDF 0.04 MB)
Appendix 2A - Family history screening questionnaire (PDF 0.03 MB)
Appendix 2B -Dutch Lipid Clinic Network Criteria for making a diagnosis of familial hypercholestrolaemia in adults (PDF 0.04 MB)
Appendix 3A - 'Red-flag' early intervention referral guide (PDF 0.37 MB)
Appendix 8A - Australian cardiovascular disease risk charts (PDF 0.47 MB)
Lifecycle charts (PDF 0.08 MB)
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