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2021.1 RCE and 2021.2 AKT results release on 1 September and 2021.2 KFP results release on 30 September 2021.
Practice Experience Program is a self-directed education program designed to support non vocationally registered doctors on their pathway to RACGP Fellowship
RACGP offer courses and events to further develop the knowledge you need to develop your GP career
Discover a world of educational opportunities to support your lifelong learning
Become a provider with the CPD Program and be recognised for the quality education and training you offer GPs
The Diabetes Handbook provides the general practice team with updated guidance and recommendations for managing type 2 diabetes
Stay up-to-date with the latest information and resources on the COVID-19 vaccine rollout.
Coronavirus is an evolving international health concern. Stay informed with the latest information.
Download the Standards for general practice (5th edition) - a benchmark for quality care and risk management in Australian general practices
Coronavirus (COVID-19) resources for general practitioners
Advice and guidelines for GPs and practice teams to help protect general practice information systems
Video consultations can provide convenient and accessible healthcare delivery
Read all of the RACGP reports and submissions on various healthcare topics
Read all of the RACGP position statements on various healthcare topics
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Prevention of vascular and metabolic disease
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurs in 18% of Australians. It accounts for 36% of all deaths and 6.9% of all disability.1 The most important behavioural and physiological risk factors for CVD are smoking, diabetes, raised blood pressure (BP), dyslipidaemia, obesity, physical inactivity and poor diet.2 These risk factors are common in the Australian population: 90% of adults aged >45 years have at least one modifiable risk factor and 66% have three or more risk factors for CVD.3 In addition to these, a family history of premature heart disease in a first-degree relative,4 history of depression, social isolation and lack of quality social support are recognised risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD).5
Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with higher rates of CVD. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, people living in rural and remote areas, and people in lower socioeconomic groups, all have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.6Minority groups have high risk factor rates of cardiovascular disease globally.6,7
There is a higher prevalence of T2D among Australians in the lower socioeconomic groups.8 T2D is more than twice as common in the most disadvantaged communities.9 Certain ethnic groups are more at risk.10Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are three times more likely to have diabetes than non-Indigenous Australians, and T2D is a direct or indirect cause for 20% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths.11
Biological and behavioural risk factors play a role in increasing cardiovascular risk (refer to Chapter 7. Prevention of chronic disease). However, while smoking, nutrition, alcohol and physical activity (SNAP) risk factors exhibit clear socioeconomic gradients,10,12 the higher prevalence of vascular and metabolic disease is only partly mediated by behavioural risk factors and is more consistently observed in women.13 Diabetes and CVD are more common in rural populations, and this is exacerbated by poorer access to healthcare.14There is evidence that men from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds may be less likely to be offered statins.15
Disadvantaged groups have higher rates of CKDfor which type 2 diabetic nephropathy is a common cause.16,17 Over the past 25 years, the number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples commencing renal replacement therapy was 3.5 times greater than the majority of the population. CKD has an earlier onset in Indigenous peoples.18–20 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are 10 times more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to be hospitalised for CKD, and, from 2008 to 2012, CKD was responsible for or associated with 16% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths.11
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Appendix 13A - The 3 Incontinence Questions 3IQ (PDF 0.04 MB)
Appendix 2A - Family history screening questionnaire (PDF 0.03 MB)
Appendix 2B -Dutch Lipid Clinic Network Criteria for making a diagnosis of familial hypercholestrolaemia in adults (PDF 0.04 MB)
Appendix 3A - 'Red-flag' early intervention referral guide (PDF 0.37 MB)
Appendix 8A - Australian cardiovascular disease risk charts (PDF 0.47 MB)
Lifecycle charts (PDF 0.08 MB)
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