Green Book

Putting prevention into practice - Chapter 4.3

Receptivity (and engagement)

Key points

The PRACTICE framework:

  • Is useful when implementing preventive activities – it incorporates elements of several other theories and frameworks
  • Helps identify and overcome barriers to implementation (eg engagement, collaboration and systems)
  • Helps remind us that change is incremental and that we should plan for and recognise ‘small’ successes along the way.

The Green Book brings together two main themes: prevention and implementation.

Both of these sit within QI and are inherently associated with behaviour change.

Change is often more effective and efficient if a whole-of-practice approach is adopted. This means addressing receptivity to change and using strategies that promote engagement on all levels. This area is often overlooked.

Questions to ask include ‘Why consider changing?’ and ‘What’s in it for our patients and our practice?’ It is also important to consider:

  • how receptive and engaged your practice team will be to implementing new prevention activities
  • what preventive activities your practice population is likely to be receptive to.

Taking time to think about how you can address these within your practice can improve your chance of success.


When considering preventive activities relating to overweight and obesity, there may be resistance because people feel they are being stigmatised. As a practice, we need to recognise this and address it. For example, consider using the word ‘weight’ rather than obesity.

– Prof Mark Harris, Green Book Editorial Committee


General practice wellness and weight

The Stirling Central Health Clinic facilitates ‘Wellness and Weight’ groups for working adults aged 40–49 years with a BMI of >25 kg/m2. Six group sessions of approximately 10 participants are run over a number of weeks   and held after-hours. The group sessions focus on encouraging and enabling participants to identify and increase positive health activities rather than focusing solely on weight loss. Education is presented from a weight-inclusive perspective using positive language and includes presentations on mindful eating, positive body image, stress reduction, enjoyable activity versus ‘exercise’, and nutrition. Presenters include a clinical psychologist and dietician with a special interest in the management of obesity.

Participants develop and set SMART (Specific, Measurable, Assignable, Realistic, Time-related) program goals in conjunction with the PN, and outcomes are measured at three, six and 12 months. Measurements taken include BMI, blood pressure and bloods, as well as measurements of happiness and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) score. Participants are also asked to identify healthy activities they would like to try and, where possible, one-off ‘try before you buy’ sessions are arranged in addition to the six sessions. Activities identified have included Pilates, a healthy cooking class and a screening of the documentary Embrace.

One of the most valuable outcomes has been the social support the participants find within the group setting, which helps them to continue their health-positive journey upon conclusion of the group sessions.

– Sally Jarrett, Practice Manager, Stirling Central Health Clinic


Unless we understand the barriers that will arise, the process won’t be successful. We need to listen to the concerns of our team and offer explanations and solutions. For example, staff in a practice wanted to engage more in prevention, but felt they were lacking the staff to do so. Staff with the most appropriate expertise were identified and re-tasked.

– Assoc Prof John Litt, Green Book Editorial Committee

GPs, PNs and the practice team as a whole are more likely to be engaged in delivering preventive care if they believe it is beneficial and achievable.1–5 How you deliver preventive care also affects engagement (Table 3).6–10 Leadership is a key contributor to both engagement and capability for change. This can take a number of forms, including having ‘local champions’, facilitators and opinion leaders.11–17

Table 3. Improving general practice engagement in preventive care delivery

Table 3

Improving general practice engagement in preventive care delivery 

An important motivator is seeing success. Lack of visible outcomes makes implementation of many prevention activities more problematic. We cannot know with certainty that our efforts have prevented the occurrence of an illness or disease in any individual. This is especially true for long-term outcomes. For example, advice about smoking is provided in the expectation that the patient will be less likely to get lung cancer or heart disease.

However, the patient may not feel any different (and may occasionally grieve for giving up something they enjoy), and the team may never see how their efforts affected the patient’s future.

A useful strategy is to select appropriate (observable or measurable) proxy measures of an outcome that may not be easy to measure (eg absolute cardiovascular risk as a marker of [reduced] risk for vascular disease). The prevention equivalent is to monitor the uptake of prevention activities (eg immunisation coverage) or, alternatively,the patient-reported behaviour (eg smoking status, alcohol consumption). This helps to ensure that all involved can see that something is being achieved. Providing meaningful feedback will require measurement of performance.


Change is incremental.

To assist with engagement, it is often useful to have smaller targets along the way that you are working towards. One idea to make this visible and to keep everyone engaged is to make a wall chart in the staff area of your practice showing the progress you are making in your program.

– Dr Cory Lei, Green Book Editorial Committee


We can take the SMART acronym18 used in project and business management when we look to make improvements:
S – Specific (target a specific area for improvement)
M – Measurable (have a quantity or an indicator of progress) A – Assignable (so that you can specify who will do it)
R – Realistic (goals should have achievable outcomes; they should also be ‘Relevant’ to your broader priorities)
T – Time-related (have clear time frames and deadlines)

– Dr Cory Lei, Green Book Editorial Committee

  1. Ross J, Stevenson F, Lau R, Murray E. Factors that influence the implementation of e-health: A systematic review of systematic reviews (an update). Implement Sci 2016;11(1):146.
  2. Kastner M, Bhattacharyya O, Hayden L, et al. Guideline uptake is influenced by six implementability domains for creating and communicating guidelines: A realist review. J Clin Epidemiol 2015;68(5):498–509.
  3. Braithwaite J, Marks D, Taylor N. Harnessing implementation science to improve care quality and patient safety: A systematic review of targeted literature. Int J Qual Health Care 2014;26(3):321–29.
  4. Ling T, Brereton L, Conklin A, Newbould J, Roland M. Barriers and facilitators to integrating care: Experiences from the English Integrated Care Pilots. Int J Integr Care 2012;12:e129.
  5. Wilkinson J, Powell A, Davies H. Evidence: Are clinicians engaged in quality improvement?: A review of the literature on healthcare professionals’ views on quality improvement initiatives. London, UK: The Health Foundation, 2011.
  6. O’Connor S, Hanlon P, O’Donnell CA, Garcia S, Glanville J, Mair FS. Understanding factors affecting patient and public engagement and recruitment to digital health interventions: A systematic review of qualitative studies. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2016;16(1):120.
  7. Dalton J, Chambers D, Harden M, Street A, Parker G, Eastwood A. Service user engagement in health service reconfiguration: A rapid evidence synthesis. J Health Serv Res Policy 2016;21(3):195–205.
  8. Barello S, Triberti S, Graffigna G, et al. eHealth for patient engagement: A systematic review. Front Psychol 2016;6:2013.
  9. O’Mara-Eves A, Brunton G, McDaid D, et al. Community engagement to reduce inequalities in health: A systematic review, meta-analysis and economic analysis. Public Health Research. Southampton, UK: NIHR Journals Library, 2013.
  10. Koopmans B, Nielen MM, Schellevis FG, Korevaar JC. Non-participation in population-based disease prevention programs in general practice. BMC Public Health 2012;12:856.
  11. Brown BB, Patel C, McInnes E, Mays N, Young J, Haines M. The effectiveness of clinical networks in improving quality of care and patient outcomes: A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. BMC Health Serv Res 2016;16:360.
  12. Mostofian F, Ruban C, Simunovic N, Bhandari M. Changing physician behavior: What works? Am J Manag Care 2015;21(1):75–84.
  13. Milat AJ, Bauman A, Redman S. Narrative review of models and success factors for scaling up public health interventions. Implement Sci 2015;10:113.
  14. Ingebrigtsen T, Georgiou A, Clay-Williams R, et al. The impact of clinical leadership on health information technology adoption: Systematic review. Int J Med Inform 2014;83(6):393–405.
  15. Chung VC, Ma PH, Hong LC, Griffiths SM. Organizational determinants of interprofessional collaboration in integrative health care: Systematic review of qualitative studies. PLoS One 2012;7(11):e50022.
  16. Best A, Greenhalgh T, Lewis S, Saul JE, Carroll S, Bitz J. Large-system transformation in health care: A realist review. Milbank Q 2012;90(3):421–56.
  17. Damschroder LJ, Aron DC, Keith RE, Kirsh SR, Alexander JA, Lowery JC. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: A consolidated framework for advancing implementation science. Implement Sci 2009;4:50.
  18. Doran G. There’s a S.M.A.R.T. way to write management’s goals and objectives. Management Review AMA Forum 1981;70(11):35–36.
  19. Leeman J, Calancie L, Hartman MA, et al. What strategies are used to build practitioners’ capacity to implement community-based interventions and are they effective? A systematic review. Implement Sci 2015;10:80.
  20. Flottorp SA, Oxman AD, Krause J, et al. A checklist for identifying determinants of practice: A systematic review and synthesis of frameworks and taxonomies of factors that prevent or enable improvements in healthcare professional practice. Implement Sci 2013;8:35.
  21. Sobal J, Valente CM, Muncie HL Jr, Levine DM, Deforge BR. Physicians’ beliefs about the importance of 25 health promoting behaviors. Am J Public Health 1985;75(12):1427–28.
  22. Scott CS, Neighbor WE, Brock DM. Physicians’ attitudes toward preventive care services: A seven-year prospective cohort study. Am J Prev Med 1992;8(4):241–48.
  23. Kviz FJ, Clark MA, Prohaska TR, et al. Attitudes and practices for smoking cessation counseling by provider type and patient age. Prev Med 1995;24(2):201–12.
  24. Weingarten S, Stone E, Hayward R, et al. The adoption of preventive care practice guidelines by primary care physicians: Do actions match intentions? J Gen Intern Med 1995;10(3):138–44.
  25. Woollard J, Beilin L, Lord T, Puddey I, MacAdam D, Rouse I. A controlled trial of nurse counselling on lifestyle change for hypertensives treated in general practice: Preliminary results. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1995;22(6–7):466–68.
  26. Henry RC, Ogle KS, Snellman LA. Preventive medicine: Physician practices, beliefs, and perceived barriers for implementation. Fam Med 1987;19(2):110–13.
  27. Coulter A, Schofield T. Prevention in general practice: The views of doctors in the Oxford region. Br J Gen Pract 1991;41(345):140–43.
  28. Litzelman DK, Tierney WM. Physicians’ reasons for failing to comply with computerized preventive care guidelines. J Gen Intern Med 1996;11(8):497–99.
  29. Checkland P. Soft systems methodology: A 30-year retrospective. Chichester, New York: John Wiley, 1999.
  30. Inui TS, Belcher DW, Carter WB. Implementing preventive care in clinical practice. I. Organizational issues and strategies. Med Care Rev 1981;38(3):129–54.
  31. Schhein E. Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Josset-Bass, 1985.
  32. Carney PA, Dietrich AJ, Keller A, Landgraf J, O’Connor GT. Tools, teamwork, and tenacity: An office system for cancer prevention. J Fam Pract 1992;35(4):388–94.
  33. Walsh JM, McPhee SJ. A systems model of clinical preventive care: An analysis of factors influencing patient and physician. Health Educ Q 1992;19(2):157–75.
  34. McPhee SJ, Detmer WM. Office-based interventions to improve delivery of cancer prevention services by primary care physicians. Cancer 1993;72(3 Suppl):1100–12.
  35. Davis DA, Thomson MA, Oxman AD, Haynes RB. Changing physician performance. A systematic review of the effect of continuing medical education strategies. JAMA 1995;274(9):700–05.
  36. Leininger LS, Finn L, Dickey L, et al. An office system for organizing preventive services: A report by the American Cancer Society Advisory Group on Preventive Health Care Reminder Systems. Arch Fam Med 1996;5(2):108–15.
  37. Rosenheck RA. Organizational process: A missing link between research and practice. Psychiatr Serv 2001;52(12):1607–12.
  38. Scott E, Anderson P. Randomized controlled trial of general practitioner intervention in women with excessive alcohol consumption. Drug Alcohol Rev 1991;10(4):313–21.
  39. Cargill VA, Conti M, Neuhauser D, McClish D. Improving the effectiveness of screening for colorectal cancer by involving nurse clinicians. Med Care 1991;29(1):1–5.
  40. Baskerville NB, Hogg W, Lemelin J. Process evaluation of a tailored multifaceted approach to changing family physician practice patterns improving preventive care. J Fam Pract 2001;50(3):W242–49.
  41. Nutting PA, Miller WL, Crabtree BF, Jaen CR, Stewart EE, Stange KC. Initial lessons from the first national demonstration project on practice transformation to a patient-centered medical home. Ann Fam Med 2009;7(3):254–60.
  42. Gagliardi AR, Berta W, Kothari A, Boyko J, Urquhart R. Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) in health care: A scoping review. Implement Sci 2016;11:38.
  43. Sutcliffe K, Thomas J, Stokes G, Hinds K, Bangpan M. Intervention Component Analysis (ICA): A pragmatic approach for identifying the critical features of complex interventions. Syst Rev 2015;4:140.
  44. Hoffmann TC, Del Mar C. Patients’ expectations of the benefits and harms of treatments, screening, and tests: A systematic review. JAMA Intern Med 2015;175(2):274–86.
  45. Sadeghi-Bazargani H, Tabrizi JS, Azami-Aghdash S.
  46. Barriers to evidence-based medicine: A systematic review. J Eval Clin Pract 2014;20(6):793–802.
  47. James KA, Fernald DH, Huff J, et al. GAPS in implementing health assessments in primary care: A literature review. J Ambul Care Manage 2014;37(1):2–10.
  48. Christl, B, Lloyd J, Krastev Y, Litt J, Harris M. Preventing vascular disease: Effective strategies for implementing guidelines in general practice. Aust Fam Physician 2011;40(10):825–28.
  49. Grimshaw J, Thomas R, MacLennan G, et al. Effectiveness and efficiency of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies. Health Technol Assess 2004;8(6):1–72.
  50. Chan WV, Pearson TA, Bennett GC, et al. ACC/AHA special report: Clinical practice guideline implementation strategies: A summary of systematic reviews by the NHLBI implementation science work group: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017;69(8):1076–92.
  51. Wong VW, Lok KY, Tarrant M. Interventions to increase the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination among pregnant women: A systematic review. Vaccine 2016;34(1):20–32.
  52. Verbakel NJ, Langelaan M, Verheij TJ, Wagner C, Zwart DL. Improving patient safety culture in primary care:
  53. A systematic review. J Patient Saf 2016;12(3):152–58.
  54. Syrowatka A, Krömker D, Meguerditchian AN, Tamblyn R. Features of computer-based decision aids: Systematic review, thematic synthesis, and meta-analyses. J Med Internet Res 2016;18(1):e20.
  55. Posadzki P, Mastellos N, Ryan R, et al. Automated telephone communication systems for preventive healthcare and management of long-term conditions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;12:CD009921.
  56. Porchia B, Bonanni P, Bechini A, Bonaccorsi G, Boccalini S. Evaluating the costs and benefits of pneumococcal vaccination in adults. Expert Rev Vaccines 2017;16(2):93–107.
  57. McElwaine KM, Freund M, Campbell EM, Bartlem KM, Wye PM, Wiggers JH. Systematic review of interventions to increase the delivery of preventive care by primary care nurses and allied health clinicians. Implement Sci 2016;11:50.
  58. Lau R, Stevenson F, Ong BN, et al. Achieving change in primary care – Causes of the evidence to practice gap: Systematic reviews of reviews. Implement Sci 2016;11:40.
  59. Körner M, Bütof S, Müller C, Zimmermann L, Becker S, Bengel J. Interprofessional teamwork and team interventions in chronic care: A systematic review. J Interprof Care 2016;30(1):15–28.
  60. Jacobs RJ, Lou JQ, Ownby RL, Caballero J. A systematic review of eHealth interventions to improve health literacy. Health Informatics J 2016;22(2):81–98.
  61. Gagnon MP, Ngangue P, Payne-Gagnon J, Desmartis M. m-Health adoption by healthcare professionals: A systematic review. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2016;23(1):212–20.
  62. Gagliardi AR, Légaré F, Brouwers MC, Webster F, Badley E, Straus S. Patient-mediated knowledge translation (PKT) interventions for clinical encounters: A systematic review. Implement Sci 2016;11:26.
  63. Fudge N, Sadler E, Fisher HR, Maher J, Wolfe CD, McKevitt C. Optimising translational research opportunities: A systematic review and narrative synthesis of basic and clinician scientists’ perspectives of factors which enable or hinder translational research. PLoS One 2016;11(8):e0160475.
  64. Escribà-Agüir V, Rodríguez-Gómez M, Ruiz-Pérez I. Effectiveness of patient-targeted interventions to promote cancer screening among ethnic minorities: A systematic review. Cancer Epidemiol 2016;44:22–39.
  65. Campanella P, Lovato E, Marone C, et al. The impact of electronic health records on healthcare quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Public Health 2016;26(1):60–64.
  66. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Developing and running a primary care practice facilitation program: A how-to guide. Rockville, MD: AHRQ, updated 2015.
  67. Stammen LA, Stalmeijer RE, Paternotte E, et al. Training physicians to provide high-value, cost-conscious care: A systematic review. JAMA 2015;314(22):2384–400.
  68. Sinclair P, Kable A, Levett-Jones T. The effectiveness of internet-based e-learning on clinician behavior and patient outcomes: A systematic review protocol. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep 2015;13(1):52–64.
  69. Senore C, Inadomi J, Segnan N, Bellisario C, Hassan C. Optimising colorectal cancer screening acceptance: A review. Gut 2015;64(7):1158–77.
  70. Oliveira VC, Ferreira ML, Pinto RZ, Filho RF, Refshauge K, Ferreira PH. Effectiveness of training clinicians’ communication skills on patients’ clinical outcomes: A systematic review. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2015;38(8):601–16.
  71. Nair NK, Newton NC, Shakeshaft A, Wallace P, Teesson M. A systematic review of digital and computer-based alcohol intervention programs in primary care. Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015;8(2):111–18.
  72. Martínez-González NA, Rosemann T, Djalali S, HuberGeismann F, Tandjung R. Task-shifting from physicians to nurses in primary care and its impact on resource utilization: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Med Care Res Rev 2015;72(4):395–418.
  73. Lau R, Stevenson F, Ong BN, et al. Achieving change in primary care – Effectiveness of strategies for improving implementation of complex interventions: Systematic review of reviews. BMJ Open 2015;5(12):e009993.
  74. Johnson MJ, May CR. Promoting professional behaviour change in healthcare: What interventions work, and why? A theory-led overview of systematic reviews. BMJ Open 2015;5(9):e008592.
  75. Horodyska K, Luszczynska A, Hayes CB, et al. Implementation conditions for diet and physical activity interventions and policies: An umbrella review. BMC Public Health 2015;15:1250.
  76. Hill B, Richardson B, Skouteris H. Do we know how to design effective health coaching interventions: A systematic review of the state of the literature. Am J Health Promot 2015;29(5):e158–68.
  77. Hall K, Staiger PK, Simpson A, Best D, Lubman DI. After 30 years of dissemination, have we achieved sustained practice change in motivational interviewing? Addiction 2016;111(7):1144–50.
  78. Grudniewicz A, Kealy R, Rodseth RN, Hamid J, Rudoler D, Straus SE. What is the effectiveness of printed educational materials on primary care physician knowledge, behaviour, and patient outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analyses. Implement Sci 2015;10:164.
  79. Green AC, Hayman LL, Cooley ME. Multiple health behavior change in adults with or at risk for cancer: A systematic review. Am J Health Behav 2015;39(3):380–94.
  80. Gibson O, Lisy K, Davy C, et al. Enablers and barriers to the implementation of primary health care interventions for Indigenous people with chronic diseases: A systematic review. Implement Sci 2015;10:71.
  81. Cervero RM, Gaines JK. The impact of CME on physician performance and patient health outcomes: An updated synthesis of systematic reviews. J Contin Educ Health Prof 2015;35(2):131–38.
  82. Aziz Z, Absetz P, Oldroyd J, Pronk NP, Oldenburg B. A systematic review of real-world diabetes prevention programs: Learnings from the last 15 years. Implement Sci 2015;10:172.
  83. Thompson-Leduc P, Clayman ML, Turcotte S, Légaré F. Shared decision-making behaviours in health professionals: A systematic review of studies based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Health Expect 2015;18(5):754–74.
  84. Thomas RE, Lorenzetti DL. Interventions to increase influenza vaccination rates of those 60 years and older in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;(7):CD005188.
  85. Thepwongsa I, Kirby CN, Schattner P, Piterman L.
  86. Online continuing medical education (CME) for GPs: Does it work? A systematic review. Aust Fam Physician 2014;43(10):717–21.
  87. Taylor SJC, Pinnock H, Epiphaniou E, et al. A rapid synthesis of the evidence on interventions supporting self-management for people with long-term conditions: PRISMS – Practical systematic Review of SelfManagement Support for long-term conditions. Health Services and Delivery Research. Southampton, UK: NIHR Journals Library, 2014.
  88. Taylor MJ, McNicholas C, Nicolay C, Darzi A, Bell D, Reed JE. Systematic review of the application of the plan-do-study-act method to improve quality in healthcare. BMJ Qual Saf 2014;23(4):290–98.
  89. Si S, Moss JR, Sullivan TR, Newton SS, Stocks NP.
  90. Effectiveness of general practice-based health checks: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Gen Pract 2014;64(618):e47–53.
  91. McEvoy R, Ballini L, Maltoni S, O’Donnell CA, Mair FS, Macfarlane A. A qualitative systematic review of studies using the normalization process theory to research implementation processes. Implement Sci 2014;9:2.
  92. Martínez-González NA, Tandjung R, Djalali S, HuberGeismann F, Markun S, Rosemann T. Effects of physician-nurse substitution on clinical parameters: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2014;9(2):e89181.
  93. Janamian T, Jackson CL, Glasson N, Nicholson C. A systematic review of the challenges to implementation of the patient-centred medical home: Lessons for Australia. Med J Aust 2014;201(3 Suppl):S69–73.
  94. Jacobs RJ, Lou JQ, Ownby RL, Caballero J. A systematic review of eHealth interventions to improve health literacy. Health Informatics J 2016;22(2):81–98.
  95. Ivers NM, Sales A, Colquhoun H, et al. No more ‘business as usual’ with audit and feedback interventions: Towards an agenda for a reinvigorated intervention. Implement Sci 2014;9:14.
  96. Fu LY, Bonhomme LA, Cooper SC, Joseph JG, Zimet GD. Educational interventions to increase HPV vaccination acceptance: A systematic review. Vaccine 2014;32(17):1901–20.
  97. Donoghue K, Patton R, Phillips T, Deluca P, Drummond C. The effectiveness of electronic screening and brief intervention for reducing levels of alcohol consumption: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Internet Res 2014;16(6):e142.
  98. Wolever RQ, Simmons LA, Sforzo GA, et al. A systematic review of the literature on health and wellness coaching: Defining a key behavioral intervention in healthcare. Glob Adv Health Med 2013;2(4):38–57.
  99. Reeves S, Perrier L, Goldman J, Freeth D, Zwarenstein M. Interprofessional education: Effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes (update). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(3):CD002213.
  100. Long JC, Cunningham FC, Braithwaite J. Bridges, brokers and boundary spanners in collaborative networks: A systematic review. BMC Health Serv Res 2013;13:158.
  101. Jackson GL, Powers BJ, Chatterjee R, et al. Improving patient care. The patient centered medical home. A systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2013;158(3):169–78.
  102. Hulscher ME, Schouten LM, Grol RP, Buchan H. Determinants of success of quality improvement collaboratives: What does the literature show? BMJ Qual Saf 2013;22(1):19–31.
  103. Goveia J, Van Stiphout F, Cheung Z, et al. Educational interventions to improve the meaningful use of Electronic Health Records: A review of the literature: BEME Guide No. 29. Med Teach 2013;35(11):e1551–60.
  104. Gelly J, Mentre F, Nougairede M, Duval X. Preventive services recommendations for adults in primary care settings: Agreement between Canada, France and the USA – A systematic review. Prev Med 2013;57(1):3–11.
  105. Boyce MB, Browne JP. Does providing feedback on patient-reported outcomes to healthcare professionals result in better outcomes for patients? A systematic review. Qual Life Res 2013;22(9):2265–78.
  106. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.
  107. Behaviour change: General approaches (PH6). London: NICE, 2007 [Accessed 9 March 2018].
  108. Solberg LI, Kottke TE, Brekke ML, Calomeni CA, Conn SA, Davidson G. Using continuous quality improvement to increase preventive services in clinical practice – Going beyond guidelines. Prev Med 1996;25(3):259–67.
  109. Palsbo S, Kroll T, McNeil M. Addressing chronic conditions through community partnerships: A formative evaluation of taking on diabetes. New York City: The Commonwealth Fund, 2004. Available at www. sep/addressing-chronic-conditions-through-communitypartnerships--a-formative-evaluation-of-taking-on-di [Accessed 29 January 2017].
  110. Braithwaite J. Bridging gaps to promote networked care between teams and groups in health delivery systems: A systematic review of non-health literature. BMJ Open 2015;5(9):e006567.
  111. Østbye T, Yarnall KS, Krause KM, Pollak KI, Gradison M, Michener JL. Is there time for management of patients with chronic diseases in primary care? Ann Fam Med 2005;3(3):209–14.
  112. Yarnall KS, Pollak KI, Østbye T, Krause KM, Michener JL. Primary care: Is there enough time for prevention? Am J Public Health 2003;93(4):635–41.
  113. Vermeire E, Hearnshaw H, Van Royen P, Denekens J. Patient adherence to treatment: Three decades of research. A comprehensive review. J Clin Pharm Ther 2001;26(5):331–42.
  114. DiMatteo MR, Giordani PJ, Lepper HS, Croghan TW.
  115. Patient adherence and medical treatment outcomes: A meta-analysis. Med Care 2002;40(9):794–811.
  116. Frosch DL, Kaplan RM. Shared decision making in clinical medicine: Past research and future directions. Am J Prev Med 1999;17(4):285–94.
  117. Cunningham FC, Ranmuthugala G, Plumb J, Georgiou A, Westbrook JI, Braithwaite J. Health professional networks as a vector for improving healthcare quality and safety: A systematic review. BMJ Qual Saf 2012;21(3):239–49.
  118. Campbell SM, Hann M, Hacker J, et al. Identifying predictors of high quality care in English general practice: Observational study. BMJ 2001;323(7316):784–87.
  119. Meddler J, Kahn N, Susman J. Risk factors and recommendations for 230 adult primary care patients, based on US Preventive Services Task Force Guidelines. Am J Prev Med 1992;8(3):150–53.
  120. Solberg LI. Guideline implementation: What the literature doesn’t tell us. Jt Comm J Qual Improv 2000;26(9):525–37.
  121. Smith WR. Evidence for the effectiveness of techniques To change physician behavior. Chest 2000;118(2 Suppl):8S–17S.
  122. Gross PA. Implementing evidence-based recommendations for health care: A roundtable comparing European and American experiences. Jt Comm J Qual Improv 2000;26(9):547–53.
  123. Freemantle N. Implementation strategies. Fam Pract 2000;17(Suppl 1):S7–10.
  124. Bero LA, Grilli R, Grimshaw JM, Harvey E, Oxman AD, Thomson MA. Closing the gap between research and practice: An overview of systematic reviews of interventions to promote the implementation of research findings. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Review Group. BMJ 1998;317(7156):465–68.
  125. Davis DA, Taylor-Vaisey A. Translating guidelines into practice. A systematic review of theoretic concepts, practical experience and research evidence in the adoption of clinical practice guidelines. CMAJ 1997;157(4):408–16.
  126. Oxman AD, Thomson MA, Davis DA, Haynes RB. No magic bullets: A systematic review of 102 trials of interventions to improve professional practice. CMAJ 1995;153(10):1423–31.
  127. Kok G, van den Borne B, Mullen PD. Effectiveness of health education and health promotion: Meta-analyses of effect studies and determinants of effectiveness. Patient Educ Couns 1997;30(1):19–27.
  128. Litt JC. Exploration of the delivery of prevention in the general practice setting. PhD theis. Adelaide: Flinders University, 2007.
  129. van Bokhoven M, Kok G, van der Weijden T. Designing a quality improvement intervention: A systematic approach. Qual Saf Health Care 2003;12(3):215–20.
  130. Grimshaw J, Shirran L, Thomas R, et al. Changing provider behavior: An overview of systematic reviews of interventions. Med Care 2001;39(8 Suppl 2):II2–45.
  131. Berwick D. Disseminating innovations in health care. JAMA 2003;289(15):1969–75.
  132. Al-Balushi S, Sohal AS, Singh PJ, Al Hajri A, Al Farsi YM, Al Abri R. Readiness factors for lean implementation in healthcare settings – A literature review. J Health Organ Manag 2014;28(2):135–53.
  133. Grandes G, Sanchez A, Cortada JM, et al. Is integration of healthy lifestyle promotion into primary care feasible?
  134. Discussion and consensus sessions between clinicians and researchers. BMC Health Serv Res 2008;8:213.
  135. Stange K, Goodwin M, Zyzanski S, Dietrich A. Sustainability of a practice-individualized preventive service delivery intervention. Am J Prev Med 2003;25(4):296–300.
  136. Harvey G, Kitson A. Translating evidence into healthcare policy and practice: Single versus multi-faceted implementation strategies – Is there a simple answer to a complex question? Int J Health Policy Manag 2015;4(3):123–26.
  137. Packard T, Shih A. Organizational change tactics: The evidence base in the literature. J Evid Based Soc Work 2014;11(5):498–510.
  138. Flodgren G, Rojas-Reyes MX, Cole N, Foxcroft DR. Effectiveness of organisational infrastructures to promote evidence-based nursing practice. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;(2):CD002212.
  139. Parmelli E, Flodgren G, Schaafsma ME, Baillie N, Beyer FR, Eccles MP. The effectiveness of strategies to change organisational culture to improve healthcare performance. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(1):CD008315.
  140. Unverzagt S, Oemler M, Braun K, Klement A. Strategies for guideline implementation in primary care focusing on patients with cardiovascular disease: A systematic review. Fam Pract 2014;31(3):247–66.
  141. Nadeem E, Olin SS, Hill LC, Hoagwood KE, Horwitz SM. Understanding the components of quality improvement collaboratives: A systematic literature review. Milbank Q 2013;91(2):354–94.
  142. Van Cleave J, Kuhlthau KA, Bloom S, et al. Interventions to improve screening and follow-up in primary care: A systematic review of the evidence. Acad Pediatr 2012;12(4):269–82.
  143. Dawda P, Jenkins R, Varnam R. Quality improvement in general practice: An inquiry into the quality of general practice in England. London, UK: The King’s Fund, 2010.
  144. Irwin R, Stokes T, Marshall T. Practice-level quality improvement interventions in primary care: A review of systematic reviews. Prim Health Care Res Dev 2015;16(6):556–77.
  145. Davy C, Bleasel J, Liu H, Tchan M, Ponniah S, Brown A. Factors influencing the implementation of chronic care models: A systematic literature review. BMC Fam Pract 2015;16:102.
  146. Schichtel M, Rose PW, Sellers C. Educational interventions for primary healthcare professionals to promote the early diagnosis of cancer: A systematic review. Educ Prim Care 2013;24(4):274–90.
  147. Wallace J, Byrne C, Clarke M. Making evidence more wanted: A systematic review of facilitators to enhance the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Int J Evid Based Healthc 2012;10(4):338–46.
  148. Baskerville NB, Liddy C, Hogg W. Systematic review and meta-analysis of practice facilitation within primary care settings. Ann Fam Med 2012;10(1):63–74.
  149. Wen J, Schulman KA. Can team-based care improve patient satisfaction? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One 2014;9(7):e100603.
  150. Gorin SS, Haggstrom D, Fairfield K, Han P, Krebs P, Clauser SB. Cancer care coordination systematic review and meta-analysis: Twenty-two years of empirical studies. J Clin Oncol 2013;31(15).
  151. Jacobson P. Evidence synthesis for the effectiveness of interprofessional teams in primary care. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, 2012.
  152. Deneckere S, Euwema M, Van Herck P, et al. Care pathways lead to better teamwork: Results of a systematic review. Soc Sci Med 2012;75(2):264–68.
  153. Medves J, Godfrey C, Turner C, et al. Systematic review of practice guideline dissemination and implementation strategies for healthcare teams and team-based practice. Int J Evid Based Healthc 2010;8(2):79–89.
  154. Maslin-Prothero SE, Bennion AE. Integrated team working: A literature review. Int J Integr Care 2010;10:e043.
  155. Buljac-Samardzic M, Dekker-van Doorn CM, van Wijngaarden JD, van Wijk KP. Interventions to improve team effectiveness: A systematic review. Health Policy 2010;94(3):183–95.
  156. Zwarenstein M, Reeves S, Barr H, et al. Interprofessional education: Effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;8(3):CD000072.
  157. Brown VM. Managing patients with hypertension in nurse-led clinics. Nursing 2017;47(4):16–9.
  158. Shackleton N, Jamal F, Viner RM, Dickson K, Patton G, Bonell C. School-based interventions going beyond health education to promote adolescent health: Systematic review of reviews. J Adolesc Health 2016;58(4):382–96.
  159. Swan M, Ferguson S, Chang A, Larson E, Smaldone A. Quality of primary care by advanced practice nurses: A systematic review. Int J Qual Health Care 2015;27(5):396–404.
  160. Baishnab E, Karner C. Primary care based clinics for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;(4):CD003533.
  161. Maindal HT, Støvring H, Sandbaek A. Effectiveness of the population-based Check your health preventive programme conducted in primary care with 4 years follow-up : Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 2014;15:341. [the CORE trial]
  162. Krogsbøll LT, Jørgensen KJ, Grønhøj Larsen C, Gøtzsche PC. General health checks in adults for reducing morbidity and mortality from disease.
  163. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;10:CD009009.
  164. Boulware LE, Marinopoulos S, Phillips KA, et al. Systematic review: The value of the periodic health evaluation. Ann Intern Med 2007;146(4):289–300.
  165. Flodgren G, Parmelli E, Doumit G, et al. Local opinion leaders: Effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(8):CD000125.
  166. Anderson CA, Titler MG. Development and verification of an agent-based model of opinion leadership. Implement Sci 2014;9:136.
  167. McLean SM, Booth A, Gee M, et al. Appointment reminder systems are effective but not optimal: Results of a systematic review and evidence synthesis employing realist principles. Patient Prefer Adherence 2016;10:479–99.
  168. McLean S, Gee M, Booth A, et al. Targeting the use of reminders and notifications for uptake by populations (TURNUP): A systematic review and evidence synthesis. Health Services and Delivery Research. Southampton, UK: NIHR Journals Library, 2014.
  169. Lin H, Wu X. Intervention strategies for improving patient adherence to follow-up in the era of mobile information technology: A systematic review and metaanalysis. PLoS One 2014;9(8):e104266.
  170. Kannisto KA, Koivunen MH, Välimäki MA. Use of mobile phone text message reminders in health care services: A narrative literature review. J Med Internet Res 2014;16(10):e222.
  171. Gurol-Urganci I, de Jongh T, Vodopivec-Jamsek V, Atun R, Car J. Mobile phone messaging reminders for attendance at healthcare appointments. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(12):CD007458.
  172. Barrio P, Gual A. Patient-centered care interventions for the management of alcohol use disorders: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Patient Prefer Adherence 2016;10:1823–45.
  173. Morton K, Beauchamp M, Prothero A, et al. The effectiveness of motivational interviewing for health behaviour change in primary care settings: A systematic review. Health Psychol Rev 2015;9(2):205–23.
  174. Lindson-Hawley N, Thompson TP, Begh R. Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;(3):CD006936.
  175. Ekong G, Kavookjian J. Motivational interviewing and outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review. Patient Educ Couns 2016;99(6):944–52.
  176. Barnes RD, Ivezaj V. A systematic review of motivational interviewing for weight loss among adults in primary care. Obes Rev 2015;16(4):304–18.
  177. VanBuskirk KA, Wetherell JL. Motivational interviewing with primary care populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Behav Med 2014;37(4):768–80.
  178. Jones A, Gladstone BP, Lübeck M, Lindekilde N, Upton D, Vach W. Motivational interventions in the management of HbA1c levels: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Prim Care Diabetes 2014;8(2):91–100.
  179. Lundahl B, Moleni T, Burke BL, et al. Motivational interviewing in medical care settings: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Patient Educ Couns 2013;93(2):157–68.
  180. Macdonald P, Hibbs R, Corfield F, Treasure J. The use of motivational interviewing in eating disorders: A systematic review. Psychiatry Res 2012;200(1):1–11.
  181. Lai DT, Cahill K, Qin Y, Tang JL. Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;(1):CD006936.
  182. Boehmer KR, Barakat S, Ahn S, Prokop LJ, Erwin PJ, Murad MH. Health coaching interventions for persons with chronic conditions: a systematic review and metaanalysis protocol. Syst Rev 2016;5(1):146.
  183. Kivelä K, Elo S, Kyngäs H, Kääriäinen M. The effects of health coaching on adult patients with chronic diseases: A systematic review. Patient Educ Couns 2014;97(2):147–57.
  184. Ammentorp J, Uhrenfeldt L, Angel F, Ehrensvärd M, Carlsen EB, Kofoed PE. Can life coaching improve health outcomes? – A systematic review of intervention studies. BMC Health Serv Res 2013;13:428.
  185. Wilson EA, Makoul G, Bojarski EA, et al. Comparative analysis of print and multimedia health materials: A review of the literature. Patient Educ Couns 2012;89(1):7–14.
  186. Giguère A, Légaré F, Grimshaw J, et al. Printed educational materials: Effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;10:CD004398.
  187. Clayman
This event attracts CPD points and can be self recorded

Did you know you can now log your CPD with a click of a button?

Create Quick log