Postoperative pulmonary complications are common and a major cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality.
Patients undergoing abdominal or cardiac surgery, with the aim of preventing postoperative pulmonary complications.
Clinically significant complications include atelectasis, infection (bronchitis, pneumonia), prolonged mechanical ventilation and respiratory failure, exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, and bronchospasm.
Preoperative inspiratory muscle training reduces the incidence of postoperative pneumonia (number needed to treat approximately 4) and atelectasis (risk ratio 0.53; 95% CI 0.34–0.82). It also reduces the length of hospital stay by about one day (MD –1.33; 95% CI –2.53 to –0.13).
The benefits from general aerobic fitness training are at this stage unclear