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Medical care of older persons in residential aged care facilities (Silver Book)

References

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  20. Ibid.

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  29. Ibid.

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  32. Ibid.

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  40. Ibid.

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  62. Ibid.

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  67. Australian Pharmaceutical Advisory Council (APAC), op. cit.

  68. Australian Medicines Handbook. Australian Medicines Handbook: medication choice companion: aged care. Adelaide: Australian Medicine Handbook, 2003.

  69. Ibid.

  70. Wagerty D, Brickley R. American Medical Directors Association and American Society of Consultant Pharmacists joint position statement on the Beers List of Potentially Inappropriate Medications in Older Adults, 2005. Available at www.ascp.com/public/ga [Accessed 26 April 2005].

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  74. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia (PSA). Professional practice standards. Pharmacy services to residential care facilities, in Australia Pharmaceutical Formulary and Handbook. 19th ed. Canberra: PSA, 2004.

  75. Brown TM, Boyle MF. Clinical review ABC of psychological medicine: delirium. BMJ 2002;325:644-7.

  76. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Psychotropic. Therapeutic Guidelines: Psychotropic, version 5. Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines Limited, 2003.

  77. Ibid.

  78. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

  79. Innouye SK, Charpentier PA. Precipitating factors for delirium in hospitalised elderly persons: predictive model and interrelationship with baseline vulnerability. JAMA 1996;275:852-7.

  80. Ibid.

  81. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Psychotropic, op. cit.

  82. Ibid.

  83. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

  84. Gray L, Woodward M, Scholes R, Fonda D, Busby W, op cit.

  85. Brodaty H, Draper BM, Low LF. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia: a seven tiered model of service delivery. Med J Aust 2003;178:231-4. Available at www.mja.com.au/public/issues/178_05_030303/bro10530_fm.html [Accessed 29 April 2005].

  86. Alzheimer's Australia and Access Economics. Dementia estimates and projections: Australian states and territories. Report by Access Economics for Alzheimer's Australia, 2005. Available at www.alzheimers.org.au [Accessed 29 April 2005].

  87. Scherer S. Getting ACROSS Dementia: A dementia management resource for general practice. Melbourne: Southcity GP Services and Alzheimer's Association Victoria, 2003.

  88. Bridges-Webb C, Wolk J. Care of patients with dementia in general practice guidelines. Sydney: The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners and NSW Health, 2003. Available at www.racgp.org.au/dementia [Accessed 29 April 2005].

  89. Ibid.

  90. Pond D, Brodaty H. Diagnosis and management of dementia in general practice. Aust Fam Physician 2004;33:789-93.

  91. Folstein MF, Folstein S, McHugh PR. Mini-Mental State a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189-98.

  92. Hodkinson HM. Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Age Ageing 1972;1:233-8.

  93. Dorevitch M, Davis S, Andrews G, op. cit.

  94. Gray L, Woodward M, Scholes R, Fonda D, Busby W, op. cit

  95. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

  96. Scott E, Pesiah C, Hickie I, Ricci C, Davenport T. A depression management program for older patients and their general practitioners. Melbourne: SPHERE: A national mental health project, 1995. Available at www.spheregp.com.au

  97. Scott E, Pesiah C, Hickie I, Ricci C, Davenport T, op. cit.

  98. Juby A, Tench S, Baker V. The value of clock drawing in identifying executive cognitive dysfunction in people with a normal Mini-Mental State Examination score. CMAJ 2002;167:859-64.

  99. Bridges-Webb C, Wolk J, op. cit.

  100. Ibid.

  101. Scherer S, op. cit.

  102. Bridges-Webb C, Wolk J, op. cit.

  103. Kane RL, Ouslander JG, Abrass IB. Essentials of clinical geriatrics. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999.

  104. Maas ML, Reed D, Myonghwa P, et al, op. cit.

  105. Rosen J, Mittal V, Mulsant BH, Degenholsz H, Castle N, Fox D. Educating the families of nursing home residents: a pilot study using a computer-based system. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2003;4:128-34.

  106. Scherer S, op. cit.

  107. Van Doorn C, Gruber-Baldini AL, Zimmerman S, et al. Dementia as a risk factor for falls and fall injuries among nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51:1213-8.

  108. Ouslander JG, Simmons S, Schnelle J, Uman G, Fingold S. Effects of prompted voiding on fecal continence among nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44:424-8.

  109. Ostaszkiewicz J, Johnston L, Roe B. Timed voiding for the management of urinary incontinence in adults (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2004. Chichester: Wiley.

  110. Scherer S, op. cit.

  111. Brodaty H, Draper BM, Low LF, op. cit.

  112. National Dementia Behaviour Advisory Service (Alzheimer's Australia). ReBOC: reducing behaviours of concern: a hands on guide. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, 2003.

  113. Popplewell P, Phillips P. Is it dementia? Which one? Aust Fam Physician 2002;31:319-21.

  114. National Prescribing Service. Galantamine (Reminyl) prolonged release capsules for dementia in Alzheimer's disease. NPS RADAR Review, December 2004. Available at www.npsradar.org.au/npsradar/content/galantamine.pdf [Accessed 16 May 2005].

  115. Neal M, Briggs M. Validation therapy for dementia (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2003. Chichester: Wiley.

  116. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Decision making tool: responding to issues of restraint in aged care. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, 2004. Available at www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content/ageing-decision-restraint.htm [Accessed 10 May 2005].

  117. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Psychotropic, op. cit.

  118. Scott E, Pesiah C, Hickie I, Ricci C, Davenport T, op. cit.

  119. National Prescribing Service. Galantamine (Reminyl) prolonged release capsules for dementia in Alzheimer's disease, op. cit.

  120. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Psychotropic, op. cit.

  121. Scott E, Pesiah C, Hickie I, Ricci C, Davenport T, op. cit.

  122. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit, 5-8.

  123. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Psychotropic, op. cit.

  124. Ibid.

  125. Brodaty H, Draper BM, Low LF, op. cit.

  126. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit, 5-8.

  127. Scherer S, op. cit.

  128. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Psychotropic, op. cit.

  129. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit, p.5-8.

  130. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Psychotropic, op. cit.

  131. National Prescribing Service. Resperidone (Risperdal) for behavioural disturbances in dementia. NPS RADAR Review, April 2005. Available at www.npsradar.org.au/npsradar/content/risperidone.pdf [Accessed 16 May 2005].

  132. Ibid.

  133. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit, 5-8.

  134. Ibid.

  135. Katona CLE, Livingstone G. Functional psychiatric illness in old age. In: Tallis RC, Fillit HM, editors. Brocklehurst''s Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, 6th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2002.

  136. Teresi J, Holmes D, Ramirez M, Eimicke J. Prevalence of depression and depression recognition in nursing homes. Soc Psychiatry, Psychiatr Epidemiol 2001;36:613-20.

  137. Fleming R, editor. Challenge depression: a manual to help staff identify and reduce depression in aged care facilities. Sydney: The Hammond Care Group, 2001.

  138. Fleming R, op. cit.

  139. Snowdon J. Late-life depression: what can be done? Aust Prescr 2001;24:65-7.

  140. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV). 4th ed. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association Press, 1994.

  141. Scott E, Pesiah C, Hickie I, Ricci C, Davenport T, op. cit.

  142. Fleming R, op. cit.

  143. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic, op. cit.

  144. Scott E, Pesiah C, Hickie I, Ricci C, Davenport T, op. cit.

  145. Khan F. Poststroke depression. Aust Fam Physician 2004;33:831-4.

  146. Scott E, Pesiah C, Hickie I, Ricci C, Davenport T, op. cit.

  147. Khan F, op. cit.

  148. Fleming R, op. cit.

  149. Khan F, op. cit.

  150. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

  151. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Psychotropic, op. cit.

  152. Snowdon J, op. cit.

  153. Scott E, Pesiah C, Hickie I, Ricci C, Davenport T, op. cit.

  154. Khan F, op. cit.

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  156. Snowdon J, op. cit.

  157. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Psychotropic, op. cit.

  158. Ibid.

  159. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

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  161. Martino R, Pron G, Diamant N. Screening for oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke: insufficient evidence for guidelines. Dysphagia 2000;15:19-30.

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  163. Chan D, Phoon S, Yeoh E, op. cit.

  164. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

  165. Jonsen AR, Siegler M, Winslade WJ. Clinical ethics: a practical approach to ethical decisions in clinical medicine, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

  166. Scherer S, Jennings C, Smeaton M, Thompson P, Stein M. A multi-disciplinary practice guideline for hip fracture prevention. Australas J Ageing 2002 21:203-10.

  167. Australian Council for Safety and Quality in Health Care. Preventing falls and harm from falls. Best practice guidelines for Australian hospitals and residential aged care facilities. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, 2005; in press.

  168. Ibid.

  169. Ibid.

  170. Ibid.

  171. Guideline for the prevention of falls in older persons. American Geriatrics Society, British Geriatrics Society, and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Panel on Falls Prevention. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001;49:664-72.

  172. Australian Council for Safety and Quality in Health Care, op. cit.

  173. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Therapeutic Guidelines: endocrinology, version 4. Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines Limited, 2004.

  174. Australian Council for Safety and Quality in Health Care, op. cit.

  175. Fonda D. Improving management of urinary incontinence in geriatric centres and nursing homes. Victorian Geriatric Peer Review Group. Aust Clin Rev 1990;10:66-71.

  176. Gardner J. Promoting continence in nursing homes: a national project. Urol Nurs 1992;12(2):83.

  177. Reuban DB, Herr KA, Pacala JT, et al, op. cit.

  178. The RACGP (West Australian Research Unit). Managing incontinence in general practice. Clinical practice guidelines. Perth: RACGP, 2002. Available at www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content/continence-ncms-res.htm-copy2 [Accessed 6 June 2005].

  179. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

  180. Gray L, Woodward M, Scholes R, Fonda D, Busby W, op. cit.

  181. Ibid.

  182. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

  183. Gray L, Woodward M, Scholes R, Fonda D, Busby W, op. cit.

  184. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

  185. Ibid.

  186. Gray L, Woodward M, Scholes R, Fonda D, Busby W, op. cit.

  187. Sapsford R. Physiotherapy for pelvic floor dysfunction in the aged care setting. In: Nitz JC, Hourigan SR, editors. Physiotherapy practice in residential aged care. Edinburgh: Butterworth Heinemann, 2004.

  188. The RACGP (West Australian Research Unit), op. cit.

  189. Kalantar JS, Howell S, Tally MJ. Prevalence of faecal incontinence and associated risk factors: an underdiagnosed problem in the Australian community? Med J Aust 2002;176:54-7.

  190. Reuban DB, Herr KA, Pacala JT, et al, op. cit.

  191. Gray L, Woodward M, Scholes R, Fonda D, Busby W, op. cit.

  192. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

  193. Gray L, Woodward M, Scholes R, Fonda D, Busby W, op. cit.

  194. Reuban DB, Herr KA, Pacala JT, et al, op. cit.

  195. Ibid.

  196. Gray L, Woodward M, Scholes R, Fonda D, Busby W, op. cit.

  197. Kamm MA. Faecal incontinence: common and treatable Med J Aust 2002;176:47-8.

  198. The RACGP (West Australian Research Unit), op. cit.

  199. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Infection control guidelines for the prevention of transmission of infectious diseases in the health care setting, 2004. www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content/icg-guidelines-index.htm [Accessed 19 April 2005].

  200. Ibid.

  201. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic, op. cit.

  202. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Infection control guidelines for the prevention of transmission of infectious diseases in the health care setting, op. cit.

  203. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic, op. cit.

  204. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

  205. National Health and Medical Research Council. The Australian immunisation handbook. 8th ed. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2003.

  206. Ruth D, Wong R, Haesler E. General practice in residential aged care: clinical information sheet: Urinary tract infections. In: Residential Aged Care Kit. Melbourne: North West Melbourne Division of General Practice, 2004. Available at www.nwmdgp.org.au [Accessed 19 April 2005]

  207. Ibid.

  208. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Guidelines for a palliative approach in residential aged care, op. cit.

  209. Ruth D, Wong R, Haesler E, op. cit.

  210. Mater Hospital (Oncology and Palliative Care Wards). Authorised opioid conversion chart. Brisbane: Mater Hospital, 2005.

  211. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Analgesic: Therapeutic Guidelines: Analgesic, version 4. Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines Limited, 2002.

  212. Ibid.

  213. Joanna Briggs Institute. Pressure sores - part 1: prevention of pressure related damage. Best Practice 1997;1:1-6. Available at www.joannabriggs.edu.au/pubs/best_practice.php [Accessed 6 June 2005].

  214. Gray L, Woodward M, Scholes R, Fonda D, Busby W, op. cit.

  215. Stacey MC. Preventing pressure ulcers [editorial]. Med J Aust 2004;180:316.

  216. Prentice JL, Stacey MC. Pressure ulcers: the case for improving prevention and management in Australian health care settings. Primary Intention 2001;9:111-20.

  217. Australian Wound Management Association. Clinical practice guidelines for prediction and prevention of pressure ulcers. Perth: Cambridge Media, 2001.

  218. Queensland Health. Pressure ulcer prevention and management resource guidelines. Brisbane: Queensland Health, 2004. Available at www.qheps.health.qld.gov.au/tpch/Pubs/pressure_ulcers.pdf [Accessed 6 June 2005].

  219. Ibid.

  220. Stacey MC, op. cit.

  221. Norton D, Exton-Smith AN, McLaren R. An investigation of geriatric nursing problems in hospitals. London: Churchill Livingstone. National Corporation for Care of Old People, 1975.

  222. Bergstrom N. A clinical trial of the Braden Scale for predicting pressure score risk. Nurs Clin North Am 1987;22:417-28.

  223. Waterlow J. Pressure sores: a risk assessment card. Nurs Times 1985;81:49-55.

  224. Joanna Briggs Institute. Pressure sores - part 1: prevention of pressure related damage. Best Practice 1997;1:1-6. Available at www.joannabriggs.edu.au/pubs/best_practice.php [Accessed 6 June 2005].

  225. Dorevitch M, Davis S, Andrews G, op. cit.

  226. Norton D, Exton-Smith AN, McLaren R, op. cit.

  227. Queensland Health, op. cit

  228. Australian Wound Management Association, op. cit.

  229. Gray L, Woodward M, Scholes R, Fonda D, Busby W, op. cit.

  230. Ibid.

  231. Reuban DB, Herr KA, Pacala JT, et al, op. cit.

  232. Queensland Health, op. cit.

  233. Ibid.

  234. Ibid.

  235. Guy RJ, Di Natale R, Kelly HA, et al. Influenza outbreaks in aged-care facilities: staff vaccination and the emerging use of antiviral therapy. Med J Aust 2004;180:640-2.

  236. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

  237. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic, op. cit.

  238. Guy RJ et al., op. cit.

  239. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

  240. Ibid.

  241. National Health and Medical Research Council, op. cit.

  242. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic, op. cit.

  243. Ibid.

  244. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit.

  245. Ruth D, Wong R, Haesler E. General practice in residential aged care: clinical information sheet: Urinary Tract Infections, op. cit.

  246. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit, 5-8.

  247. Ruth D, Wong R, Haesler E. General practice in residential aged care: clinical information sheet: Urinary tract infections, op. cit.

  248. Ibid.

  249. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit, 5-8.

  250. Ruth D, Wong R, Haesler E. General practice in residential aged care: clinical information sheet: Urinary tract infections, op. cit.

  251. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit, 5-8.

  252. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic, op. cit.

  253. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit, 5-8.

  254. Ruth D, Wong R, Haesler E. General practice in residential aged care: clinical information sheet: Urinary tract infections, op. cit.

  255. Ibid.

  256. Writing Group for Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic, op. cit.

  257. Australian Medicines Handbook, op. cit, 5-8.

  258. Ruth D, Wong R, Haesler E. General Practice in residential aged care, partnerships for 'round the clock' medical care, op. cit.

  259. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Medicare Benefits Schedule, 2005. Available at www7.health.gov.au/pubs/mbs/index.htm [Accessed 10 May 2005].

  260. Aged Care Standards Agency. Continuous improvement for residential aged care: an education package, 2001. Available at www.accreditation.org.au/ContinuousImprovementEducationPackage [Accessed 10 May 2005].

  261. NSW Health Department. Easy guide to clinical practice improvement. A guide for health care professionals, 2002. Available at www.health.nsw.gov.au [Accessed 10 May 2005].

  262. Dorevitch M, Davis S, Andrews G, op. cit.

  263. Flicker l, Loguidice D, Carlin JB, Ames D. The predictive value of dementia screening in clinical populations. Int J Geriatric Psychiatry 1997;12:203-9.

  264. Dorevitch M, Davis S, Andrews G, op. cit.

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The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP) ABN 34 000 223 807
RACGP House, 100 Wellington Parade, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 Australia

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